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Open AccessArticle

High Salt Diet Impacts the Risk of Sarcopenia Associated with Reduction of Skeletal Muscle Performance in the Japanese Population

1
Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tsukuba International University, Ibarak 300-0051, Japan
2
Laboratory of Sports Medicine, Division of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577, Japan
3
Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Saitama 359-1192, Japan
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Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577, Japan
5
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo 102-0083, Japan
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Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577, Japan
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Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Okayama University of Science, Ehime 794-8555, Japan
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Division of Anti-aging Medicine, Center for Molecular Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi 329-0431, Japan
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Department of Nephrology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3474; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113474
Received: 16 October 2020 / Revised: 2 November 2020 / Accepted: 5 November 2020 / Published: 12 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Athletic Performance)
The World Health Organization has recommended 5 g/day as dietary reference intakes for salt. In Japan, the averages for men and women were 11.0 g/day and 9.3 g/day, respectively. Recently, it was reported that amounts of sodium accumulation in skeletal muscles of older people were significantly higher than those in younger people. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the risk of sarcopenia with decreased muscle mass and strength was related to the amount of salt intake. In addition, we investigated its involvement with renalase. Four groups based on age and salt intake (“younger low-salt,” “younger high-salt,” “older low-salt,” and “older high-salt”) were compared. Stratifying by age category, body fat percentage significantly increased in high-salt groups in both younger and older people. Handgrip strength/body weight and chair rise tests of the older high-salt group showed significant reduction compared to the older low-salt group. However, there was no significant difference in renalase concentrations in plasma. The results suggest that high-salt intake may lead to fat accumulation and muscle weakness associated with sarcopenia. Therefore, efforts to reduce salt intake may prevent sarcopenia. View Full-Text
Keywords: salt; sarcopenia; renalase; body fat percentage; knee extensor muscle strength; single-leg stance time; maximum gait speed; long seat type body anteflexion; chair rise test salt; sarcopenia; renalase; body fat percentage; knee extensor muscle strength; single-leg stance time; maximum gait speed; long seat type body anteflexion; chair rise test
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yoshida, Y.; Kosaki, K.; Sugasawa, T.; Matsui, M.; Yoshioka, M.; Aoki, K.; Kuji, T.; Mizuno, R.; Kuro-o, M.; Yamagata, K.; Maeda, S.; Takekoshi, K. High Salt Diet Impacts the Risk of Sarcopenia Associated with Reduction of Skeletal Muscle Performance in the Japanese Population. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3474. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113474

AMA Style

Yoshida Y, Kosaki K, Sugasawa T, Matsui M, Yoshioka M, Aoki K, Kuji T, Mizuno R, Kuro-o M, Yamagata K, Maeda S, Takekoshi K. High Salt Diet Impacts the Risk of Sarcopenia Associated with Reduction of Skeletal Muscle Performance in the Japanese Population. Nutrients. 2020; 12(11):3474. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113474

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yoshida, Yasuko; Kosaki, Keisei; Sugasawa, Takehito; Matsui, Masahiro; Yoshioka, Masaki; Aoki, Kai; Kuji, Tomoaki; Mizuno, Risuke; Kuro-o, Makoto; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Maeda, Seiji; Takekoshi, Kazuhiro. 2020. "High Salt Diet Impacts the Risk of Sarcopenia Associated with Reduction of Skeletal Muscle Performance in the Japanese Population" Nutrients 12, no. 11: 3474. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113474

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