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Review

Inositol and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Systematic Review on Deficiencies and Supplementation

1
Department of Oncology and Hemato-oncology, Postgraduate School of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Milan, 20129 Milan, Italy
2
Department of Neuroimmunology and Neuromuscular Diseases, Fondazione I.R.C.C.S., Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, 20133 Milan, Italy
3
Department of Clinical, Internal, Anesthesiologic and Cardiovascular Sciences, Atherothrombosis Center, I Medical Clinic l, Sapienza University of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy
4
Oncology Department, Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research I.R.C.C.S., 20156 Milan, Italy
5
Internal Medicine Department, ASST Great Metropolitan Hospital Niguarda, 20162 Milan, Italy
6
Department of Laboratory Medicine, ASST Great Metropolitan Hospital Niguarda, 20162 Milan, Italy
7
Experimental & Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Oncology Referral Center (CRO), IRCCS, 33081 Aviano, Italy
8
SSD Diabetes Unit, ASST Great Metropolitan Hospital Niguarda, 20162 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to this article.
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3379; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113379
Received: 16 October 2020 / Revised: 28 October 2020 / Accepted: 30 October 2020 / Published: 3 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Diet in Fatty Liver Disease)
Liver lipid accumulation is a hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), broadly associated with insulin resistance. Inositols (INS) are ubiquitous polyols implied in many physiological functions. They are produced endogenously, are present in many foods and in dietary supplements. Alterations in INS metabolism seems to play a role in diseases involving insulin resistance such as diabetes and polycystic ovary syndrome. Given its role in other metabolic syndromes, the hypothesis of an INS role as a supplement in NAFLD is intriguing. We performed a systematic review of the literature to find preclinical and clinical evidence of INS supplementation efficacy in NAFLD patients. We retrieved 10 studies on animal models assessing Myoinosiol or Pinitol deficiency or supplementation and one human randomized controlled trial (RCT). Overall, INS deficiency was associated with increased fatty liver in animals. Conversely, INS supplementation in animal models of fatty liver reduced hepatic triglycerides and cholesterol accumulation and maintained a normal ultrastructural liver histopathology. In the one included RCT, Pinitol supplementation obtained similar results. Pinitol significantly reduced liver fat, post-prandial triglycerides, AST levels, lipid peroxidation increasing glutathione peroxidase activity. These results, despite being limited, indicate the need for further evaluation of INS in NAFLD in larger clinical trials. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; NAFLD; inositol; myoinositol; chiro-inositol; systematic review non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; NAFLD; inositol; myoinositol; chiro-inositol; systematic review
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pani, A.; Giossi, R.; Menichelli, D.; Fittipaldo, V.A.; Agnelli, F.; Inglese, E.; Romandini, A.; Roncato, R.; Pintaudi, B.; Del Sole, F.; Scaglione, F. Inositol and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Systematic Review on Deficiencies and Supplementation. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3379. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113379

AMA Style

Pani A, Giossi R, Menichelli D, Fittipaldo VA, Agnelli F, Inglese E, Romandini A, Roncato R, Pintaudi B, Del Sole F, Scaglione F. Inositol and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Systematic Review on Deficiencies and Supplementation. Nutrients. 2020; 12(11):3379. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113379

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pani, Arianna, Riccardo Giossi, Danilo Menichelli, Veronica A. Fittipaldo, Francesca Agnelli, Elvira Inglese, Alessandra Romandini, Rossana Roncato, Basilio Pintaudi, Francesco Del Sole, and Francesco Scaglione. 2020. "Inositol and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Systematic Review on Deficiencies and Supplementation" Nutrients 12, no. 11: 3379. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113379

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