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Genomics in Personalized Nutrition: Can You “Eat for Your Genes”?

1
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA
2
The BIO5 Institute, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3118; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103118
Received: 16 September 2020 / Revised: 5 October 2020 / Accepted: 7 October 2020 / Published: 13 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genomics and Personalized Nutrition)
Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data are now quickly and inexpensively acquired, raising the prospect of creating personalized dietary recommendations based on an individual’s genetic variability at multiple SNPs. However, relatively little is known about most specific gene–diet interactions, and many molecular and clinical phenotypes of interest (e.g., body mass index [BMI]) involve multiple genes. In this review, we discuss direct to consumer genetic testing (DTC-GT) and the current potential for precision nutrition based on an individual’s genetic data. We review important issues such as dietary exposure and genetic architecture addressing the concepts of penetrance, pleiotropy, epistasis, polygenicity, and epigenetics. More specifically, we discuss how they complicate using genotypic data to predict phenotypes as well as response to dietary interventions. Then, several examples (including caffeine sensitivity, alcohol dependence, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, obesity/appetite, cardiovascular, Alzheimer’s disease, folate metabolism, long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis, and vitamin D metabolism) are provided illustrating how genotypic information could be used to inform nutritional recommendations. We conclude by examining ethical considerations and practical applications for using genetic information to inform dietary choices and the future role genetics may play in adopting changes beyond population-wide healthy eating guidelines. View Full-Text
Keywords: precision nutrition; nutrigenomics; nutrigenetics; personalized; diet; genetics; nutrients precision nutrition; nutrigenomics; nutrigenetics; personalized; diet; genetics; nutrients
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Mullins, V.A.; Bresette, W.; Johnstone, L.; Hallmark, B.; Chilton, F.H. Genomics in Personalized Nutrition: Can You “Eat for Your Genes”? Nutrients 2020, 12, 3118.

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