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Daily Consumption of Coffee and Eating Bread at Breakfast Time Is Associated with Lower Visceral Adipose Tissue and with Lower Prevalence of Both Visceral Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Japanese Populations: A Cross-Sectional Study

Department of Epidemiology for Community Health and Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 465 Kajii-cho, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan
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Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3090; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103090
Received: 26 August 2020 / Revised: 2 October 2020 / Accepted: 5 October 2020 / Published: 11 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
Background: The study aimed to investigate the association between daily consumption of coffee or green tea, with and without habitual bread consumption for breakfast, and components and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Japanese populations. Methods: The study population consisted of 3539 participants (1239 males and 2300 females). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression analyses to evaluate the associations of daily coffee and green tea consumption with the prevalence of obesity, visceral obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Results: Coffee consumption was associated with significantly lower proportions of visceral obesity (OR: 0.746, CI: 0.588–0.947) and metabolic syndrome (OR: 0.706, CI: 0.565–0.882). On the other hand, green tea was not associated with visceral obesity (OR: 1.105, CI: 0.885–1.380) or metabolic syndrome (OR: 0.980, CI: 0.796–1.206). The combination of daily drinking coffee and eating bread at breakfast time was associated with significantly lower proportions of obesity (OR: 0.613, CI: 0.500–0.751) (p = 0.911 for interaction), visceral obesity (OR: 0.549, CI: 0.425–0.710) (p = 0.991 for interaction), and metabolic syndrome (OR: 0.586, CI: 0.464–0.741) (p = 0.792 for interaction). Conclusion: Coffee consumption was significantly associated with lower visceral adipose tissue and lower proportions of visceral obesity, but the same was not true for green tea consumption. Furthermore, in combination with coffee consumption, the addition of eating bread at breakfast time significantly lowered proportions of visceral obesity and metabolic syndrome, although there was no interaction between coffee and bread. View Full-Text
Keywords: coffee; green tea; visceral adipose tissue; metabolic syndrome coffee; green tea; visceral adipose tissue; metabolic syndrome
MDPI and ACS Style

Koyama, T.; Maekawa, M.; Ozaki, E.; Kuriyama, N.; Uehara, R. Daily Consumption of Coffee and Eating Bread at Breakfast Time Is Associated with Lower Visceral Adipose Tissue and with Lower Prevalence of Both Visceral Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Japanese Populations: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3090. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103090

AMA Style

Koyama T, Maekawa M, Ozaki E, Kuriyama N, Uehara R. Daily Consumption of Coffee and Eating Bread at Breakfast Time Is Associated with Lower Visceral Adipose Tissue and with Lower Prevalence of Both Visceral Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Japanese Populations: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients. 2020; 12(10):3090. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103090

Chicago/Turabian Style

Koyama, Teruhide; Maekawa, Mizuho; Ozaki, Etsuko; Kuriyama, Nagato; Uehara, Ritei. 2020. "Daily Consumption of Coffee and Eating Bread at Breakfast Time Is Associated with Lower Visceral Adipose Tissue and with Lower Prevalence of Both Visceral Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Japanese Populations: A Cross-Sectional Study" Nutrients 12, no. 10: 3090. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103090

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