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Effects of Interval Jump Rope Exercise Combined with Dark Chocolate Supplementation on Inflammatory Adipokine, Cytokine Concentrations, and Body Composition in Obese Adolescent Boys

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Department of Exercise Physiology, University of Birjand, Birjand 9717434765, Iran
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Department of Exercise Physiology, University of Tehran, Tehran 1961733114, Iran
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Department of Exercise Physiology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad 9177948974, Iran
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Department of Exercise Physiology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441, Iran
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Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz 61357-15794, Iran
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Qaen school of Nursing and Midwifery, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand 9717853577, Iran
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Department of Health and Human Performance, Marymount University, Arlington, VA 22207, USA
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Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, LaPSCo, Physiological and Psychosocial Stress, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand, Preventive and Occupational Medicine, Witty Fit, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3011; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103011
Received: 13 August 2020 / Revised: 26 September 2020 / Accepted: 28 September 2020 / Published: 30 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Nutrition)
We examined the effects of six weeks of dark chocolate supplementation combined with interval jump rope exercise (JRE) on inflammatory cytokines, adipokines, and body composition in obese adolescent boys. Forty-eight obese adolescent boys (age  = 15.4  ±  1.1 years and body mass index  =  32.2  ±  2.4 kg/m2) were randomly assigned into one of four groups: JRE + white chocolate (JW; n = 13), JRE + dark chocolate supplementation (JD; n = 13), dark chocolate supplementation (DS; n = 12), or control (C; n = 12). Participants in JW and JD groups performed JRE for three times per week for six weeks. Participants in the DS and JD groups consumed 30 g of dark chocolate containing 83% of cocoa. Body composition, pro-inflammatory cytokines ((hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6), adipokines (leptin, resistin, RBP-4, chemerin, MCP-1), and anti-inflammatory adipokines (irisin, adiponectin)) were evaluated prior to and after the intervention trials. All three intervention trials significantly (p < 0.05) decreased body mass, waist-hip ratio, fat mass, hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, leptin, resistin, RBP-4, and MCP-1, and increased irisin and adiponectin concentrations. The improvements in these parameters were greater in the JD group, and additionally, chemerin concentrations decreased only in the JD group. JD enhanced adiponectin concentrations and decreased IL-6 concentrations compared to C. Moreover, JD significantly reduced chemerin concentrations, an effect not observed in any of the other interventions. We demonstrated that dark chocolate supplementation potentiated JRE-induced decreases in body mass, WHR, FM, hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, leptin, resistin, RBP-4, and MCP-1, chemerin as well as increases irisin and adiponectin concentrations in obese adolescent boys. Therefore, JRE combined with dark chocolate supplementation could be a beneficial in reducing obesity-induced inflammation in adolescent boys. View Full-Text
Keywords: fat mass; dark chocolate; obesity; body composition; inflammation fat mass; dark chocolate; obesity; body composition; inflammation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Eskandari, M.; Hooshmand Moghadam, B.; Bagheri, R.; Ashtary-Larky, D.; Eskandari, E.; Nordvall, M.; Dutheil, F.; Wong, A. Effects of Interval Jump Rope Exercise Combined with Dark Chocolate Supplementation on Inflammatory Adipokine, Cytokine Concentrations, and Body Composition in Obese Adolescent Boys. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3011. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103011

AMA Style

Eskandari M, Hooshmand Moghadam B, Bagheri R, Ashtary-Larky D, Eskandari E, Nordvall M, Dutheil F, Wong A. Effects of Interval Jump Rope Exercise Combined with Dark Chocolate Supplementation on Inflammatory Adipokine, Cytokine Concentrations, and Body Composition in Obese Adolescent Boys. Nutrients. 2020; 12(10):3011. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103011

Chicago/Turabian Style

Eskandari, Mozhgan; Hooshmand Moghadam, Babak; Bagheri, Reza; Ashtary-Larky, Damoon; Eskandari, Elham; Nordvall, Michael; Dutheil, Frédéric; Wong, Alexei. 2020. "Effects of Interval Jump Rope Exercise Combined with Dark Chocolate Supplementation on Inflammatory Adipokine, Cytokine Concentrations, and Body Composition in Obese Adolescent Boys" Nutrients 12, no. 10: 3011. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103011

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