Although diet interventions are mostly related to metabolic disorders, nowadays they are used in a wide variety of pathologies. From diabetes and obesity to cardiovascular diseases, to cancer or neurological disorders and stroke, nutritional recommendations are applied to almost all diseases. Among such disorders, metabolic disturbances and brain function and/or diseases have recently been shown to be linked. Indeed, numerous neurological functions are often associated with perturbations of whole-body energy homeostasis. In this regard, specific diets are used in various neurological conditions, such as epilepsy, stroke, or seizure recovery. In addition, Alzheimer’s disease and Autism Spectrum Disorders are also considered to be putatively improved by diet interventions. Glycemic index diets are a novel developed indicator expected to anticipate the changes in blood glucose induced by specific foods and how they can affect various physiological functions. Several results have provided indications of the efficiency of low-glycemic index diets in weight management and insulin sensitivity, but also cognitive function, epilepsy treatment, stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases. Overall, studies involving the glycemic index can provide new insights into the relationship between energy homeostasis regulation and brain function or related disorders. Therefore, in this review, we will summarize the main evidence on glycemic index involvement in brain mechanisms of energy homeostasis regulation.
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