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The Dietary Inflammatory Index and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia in the MCC Spain Study

1
Departament de Ciències Experimentals i de la Salut, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona 08002, Spain
2
Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid 28029, Spain
3
Instituto de Salud Global de Barcelona (ISGlobal), Barcelona 08003, Spain
4
Unit of Molecular Epidemiology and Genetic in Infections and Cancer (UNIC-Molecular), Cancer Epidemiology Research Programme (IDIBELL), Catalan Institute of Oncology, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat 08908, Spain
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Public Health Division of Gipuzkoa, BioDonostia Research Institute, San Sebastian 20014, Spain
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Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Illes Balears (IdISBa), Palma 07120, Spain
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CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Madrid 28029, Spain
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Unit of Information and Interventions in Infections and Cancer (UNIC-I&I), Cancer Epidemiology Research Programme, (IDIBELL), Catalan Institute of Oncology, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat 08908, Spain
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Haematology, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), Catalan Institute of Oncology, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat 08908, Spain
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Haematology Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat 08908, Spain
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Hematopathology Unit, Department of Pathology, Hospital Clínic, (IDIBAPS), Barcelona 08036, Spain
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Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Cáncer (CIBERONC), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid 28029, Spain
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Marqués de Valdecilla Research Institute (IDIVAL), University of Cantabria, Santander 39011, Spain
14
Research group on Statistics, Econometrics and Health (GRECS), University of Girona, Girona 17071, Spain
15
Epidemiology Unit and Girona Cancer Registry, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Girona 17007, Spain
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Universidad de Oviedo, área de medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Oviedo 33003, Spain
17
Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias (HUCA), Oviedo 33011, Spain
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IUOPA: Instituto de Oncología de Asturias (IUOPA), Oviedo 33003, Spain
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Haematology Department, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona 08003, Spain
20
Unidad de Gestión Clínica de Hematología. Hospital Universitario San Cecilio PTS de Granada, Granada 18016, Spain
21
Epidemiology Section, Public Health Division, Department of Health of Madrid, Madrid 28035, Spain
22
Cancer Prevention and Control Program, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
23
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
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Department of Nutrition, Connecting Health Innovations LLC (CHI), Columbia, SC 29201, USA
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Cancer Epidemiology Unit, National Centre for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid 28029, Spain
26
Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM), Barcelona 08003, Spain
27
PATH, Sexual and Reproductive Health, Seattle, WA 98121, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors shared senior authorship.
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010048
Received: 25 October 2019 / Revised: 9 December 2019 / Accepted: 9 December 2019 / Published: 23 December 2019
Chronic inflammation plays a role in the development of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), and diet might modulate chronic inflammation. This study aims to evaluate the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII®) and CLL. A total of 366 CLL cases and 1643 controls of the Spanish multicase-control (MCC) Spain study were included. The inflammatory potential of the diet was assessed using the energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (E-DII) based on 30 items from a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression models controlling for potential confounders. Overall, a modest, non-statistically significant, positive association was observed between CLL and E-DII scores (OR for a one-unit increase in E-DII: 1.05 (CI 95%: 0.99, 1.12), p-value = 0.09 and by tertiles: ORT2vsT1: 1.20 (CI 95%: 0.90, 1.59); OR T3vsT1: 1.21 (CI 95%: 0.90, 1.62), p trend = 0.21). These results were independent from disease severity (p-het: 0.70), time from diagnosis (p-het: 0.67) and CLL treatment received (p-het: 0.56). No interactions were detected. In conclusion, the consumption of a diet with high pro-inflammatory components was not significantly associated with CLL. Changes towards a more pro-inflammatory dietary pattern in younger generations not included here warrant future research. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary inflammatory index; chronic lymphocytic leukaemia; case-control study; MCC Spain study; nutrition; cancer dietary inflammatory index; chronic lymphocytic leukaemia; case-control study; MCC Spain study; nutrition; cancer
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Flores, J.C.; Gracia-Lavedan, E.; Benavente, Y.; Amiano, P.; Romaguera, D.; Costas, L.; Robles, C.; Gonzalez-Barca, E.; de la Banda, E.; Alonso, E.; Aymerich, M.; Campo, E.; Dierssen-Sotos, T.; Marcos-Gragera, R.; Rodriguez-Suarez, M.M.; Solans, M.; Gimeno, E.; Garcia Martin, P.; Aragones, N.; Shivappa, N.; Hébert, J.R.; Pollan, M.; Kogevinas, M.; de Sanjose, S.; Castaño-Vinyals, G.; Casabonne, D. The Dietary Inflammatory Index and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia in the MCC Spain Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 48.

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