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Open AccessArticle

In Vivo Fat Quantification: Monitoring Effects of a 6-Week Non-Energy-Restricted Ketogenic Diet in Healthy Adults Using MRI, ADP and BIA

1
Department of Radiology, Medical Physics, Medical Center—University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, 79106 Freiburg, Germany
2
Institute for Exercise—und Occupational Medicine, Center for Medicine, Medical Center—University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, 79106 Freiburg, Germany
3
Department of Medicine I, Section of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Medical Center—University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, 79106 Freiburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010244
Received: 16 August 2019 / Revised: 23 December 2019 / Accepted: 8 January 2020 / Published: 17 January 2020
The ketogenic diet (KD) is a very low-carbohydrate, high-fat, and adequate-protein diet that induces many metabolic adaptations when calorie intake is not limited. Its therapeutic use in a range of diseases including cancer is currently being investigated. Our objective was to firstly assess the impact of a 6-week non-energy-restricted KD on the abdominal fat distribution and the hepatic fat composition in healthy adults. Body fat distribution and composition were measured by comparing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) results with air displacement plethysmography (ADP) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) measurements. A total of 12 subjects from the KetoPerformance study were recruited for this ancillary study. Body mass index (BMI), total mass, total fat mass, total subcutaneous mass, and subcutaneous fat mass decreased significantly. None of the MRS parameters showed a significant change during the study. Even though the average change in body weight was >2kg, no significant changes in intrahepatic lipid (IHL) content could be observed. Total fat mass and total fat-free mass derived from MRI has a strong correlation with the corresponding values derived from BIA and ADP data. BMI and the absolute fat parameter of all three modalities decreased, but there were no or only minor changes regarding the fat-free parameter. Magnetic resonance imaging provides body composition information on abdominal fat distribution changes during a ketogenic diet. This information is complementary to anthropomorphic and laboratory measures and is more detailed than the information provided by ADP and BIA measures. It was shown that there was no significant change in internal fat distribution, but there was a decrease in subcutaneous fat. View Full-Text
Keywords: ketogenic diet; low carbohydrate; non-energy-restricted diet; body composition; magnetic resonance imaging; magnetic resonance spectroscopy; dixon MRI; liver MRS; ADP; BIA ketogenic diet; low carbohydrate; non-energy-restricted diet; body composition; magnetic resonance imaging; magnetic resonance spectroscopy; dixon MRI; liver MRS; ADP; BIA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Buechert, M.; Lange, T.; Deibert, P.; Urbain, P. In Vivo Fat Quantification: Monitoring Effects of a 6-Week Non-Energy-Restricted Ketogenic Diet in Healthy Adults Using MRI, ADP and BIA. Nutrients 2020, 12, 244. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010244

AMA Style

Buechert M, Lange T, Deibert P, Urbain P. In Vivo Fat Quantification: Monitoring Effects of a 6-Week Non-Energy-Restricted Ketogenic Diet in Healthy Adults Using MRI, ADP and BIA. Nutrients. 2020; 12(1):244. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010244

Chicago/Turabian Style

Buechert, Martin; Lange, Thomas; Deibert, Peter; Urbain, Paul. 2020. "In Vivo Fat Quantification: Monitoring Effects of a 6-Week Non-Energy-Restricted Ketogenic Diet in Healthy Adults Using MRI, ADP and BIA" Nutrients 12, no. 1: 244. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010244

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