|Gallelli (2019) ||Prospective, single-blind, single-center, control-group||Migraine (n = 95)|
Control (n = 120)
|Range: 13–54||15.4 ||Serum vitamin D levels were lower than the normal range in patients with migraines and controls.|
Mean vitamin D values were significantly higher in the control group compared to the migraine group.
|Patel (2019) ||Retrospective, cross-sectional||Migraine (n = 446, 446) ||Range: 19–80||No data||Vitamin D deficiency elevated the odds of major/extreme loss of function.|
There was higher prevalence and higher odds of migraine among vitamin D deficient patients compared to those with hypocalcemia or no-deficiency.
|Kılıç (2019) ||Retrospective study||Migraine (n = 92)||Mean: 12.6||No data||There was increased migraine frequency, duration, and PedMIDAS scores in those with vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency.|
Migraine frequency, duration, and PedMIDAS scores were significantly negatively related to serum vitamin D levels.
|Hanci (2019) ||Retrospective, observational||Migraine (n = 165)|
TTH (n = 116)
Control (n = 98)
|Range: 5–17||Migraine: 12.4 ± 7.7|
TTH: 13.5 ± 9.9
Control: 13.4 ± 8.8
|No significant differences in mean vitamin D levels among the three groups||Not associated|
|Hussain (2019) ||Case-control||Migraine (n = 40)|
Control (n = 40)
|Vitamin D levels were significantly lower in those with migraines compared to controls|
The incidence of aura, allodynia, phonophobia/photophobia, autonomic manifestations, and resistance to medications was increased vitamin D deficient patients with migraines than those with normal vitamin D levels.
Serum vitamin D levels were significantly negatively related to the frequency, duration, and severity of migraine headache attacks
|Togha (2018) ||Case-control||Migraine (n = 70)|
Control (n = 70)
|Mean: 37||Migraine: 30|
|There were more subjects with vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in the migraine group (53.7%) than the control group (26.1%).|
Serum vitamin D levels were significantly negatively related to migraine headaches
Serum vitamin D levels in those with chronic migraine were not different to those in subjects with episodic migraine
Serum vitamin D levels showed no correlation with headache parameters.
|Song (2018) ||Retrospective, observational||Migraine (n = 157)||Mean: 37||15.9 ± 7.4||The majority (94.9%) of subjects with migraine had vitamin D insufficiency.|
Frequent monthly headache was 1.2 times more common in migraine patients with vitamin D deficiency than those without deficiency.
|Donmez (2018) ||Retrospective, case-control||Migraine (n = 68)|
TTH (n = 79)
Control (n = 69)
|Mean: 12.2||Migraine: 17.3|
|Serum vitamin D levels were significantly lower in the migraine and TTH groups compared with the control group.||Associated|
|Sohn (2018) ||Case-control||CH (n = 28)|
Migraine (n = 36)
Control (n = 36)
|CH: 14.0 ± 3.9|
Migraine: 14.7 ± 5.9
Control: 14.6 ± 7.4
|The majority (92.8%) of those with CH had vitamin D deficiency.|
There was no significant difference in vitamin D levels among patients with CH, migraine, or controls.
Patients with a headache periodicity during winter to spring showed a trend of lower serum vitamin D levels than those with periodicity during summer to autumn.
|Rapisarda (2018) ||Case-control||CM (n = 100)|
EM (n = 34)
Control (n = 38)
|Vitamin D deficiency was severe among headache patients (especially in those with CM) compared to healthy subjects.|
Vitamin D levels were negatively correlated with the number of days of headache (Pearson’s correlation coefficient: 0.506)
|Farajzadeh (2018) ||Case-control||TN (n = 13)|
Control (n = 13)
|Mean: 53.3 ||TN: 22.61|
|Vitamin D levels were significantly decreased in patients with TN (before and after microvascular decompression) compared to the control group.||Associated|
|Prakash (2017) ||Case-control||Chronic TTH (n = 100)|
Control (n = 100)
|Chronic TTH: 35.63|
|Chronic TTH: 14.7|
|Serum vitamin D levels were significantly lower in Chronic TTH patients than in controls.|
Vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent in patients with Chronic TTH (71%) than controls (25%).
Chronic TTH patients with vitamin D deficiency had a higher prevalence of musculoskeletal pain, muscle weakness, muscle and bone tenderness score, associated fatigue, and a more prolonged course.
Serum vitamin D levels were positively correlated with the total muscle tenderness score.
|Virtanen (2017) ||Cross-sectional||Self-reported frequent headache (n = 250)||Range: 42–60||38.3 nmol/L||Serum vitamin D levels were lower in subjects with frequent headaches than other participants.|
Serum vitamin D levels were inversely associated with frequent headaches.
|Tozzi (2016) ||Cross-sectional ||MWoA (n = 91)|
MWA (n = 32)
TTH (n = 36)
|Range: 5–18||No data||Serum vitamin D levels were lower in children with MwoA than those with MWA and THH, albeit not significantly (p = 0.07).||Not associated|
|Iannacchero (2015) ||Observational||Migraine (n = 22)||Mean: 45.41||13.05 ± 5.70||Vitamin D levels were similar among those with CM than those with EM|
Vitamin D levels were not significantly correlated with headache frequency.
|Buettner (2015) ||Cross-sectional||5938 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination||No data||No data||People with serum vitamin D levels >57 nmol/l and use a statin had a lower prevalence of severe headache or migraine.||Associated|
|Prakash (2013) ||Observational||Chronic TTH (n = 71)||Mean: 38||No data||Serum vitamin D levels were significantly associated with headache, musculoskeletal pain, and osteomalacia.|
Mean vitamin D levels were significantly lower in subjects suffering from daily headache compared to those with intermittent headaches.
|Celikbilek (2014) ||Cross-sectional, prospective||Migraine (n = 52)|
Control (n = 49)
|Serum vitamin D and VDR levels were significantly lower in migraine patients than controls.|
Serum VDBP levels were similar between the two groups.
Serum vitamin D, VDBP, and VDR levels showed no correlated with headache characteristics.
|Zandifar (2014) ||Case-control||Migraine (n = 105)|
Control (n = 110)
|Migraine: 13.55 ± 0.91|
Control: 13.19 ± 1.19
|There was no significant difference in vitamin D levels among between case controls.|
Severity of headache was not related to vitamin D levels.
|Mottaghi (2013) ||Cross-sectional||Migraine (n = 76)||Mean: 33.1||23.3 ± 1.8||Serum vitamin D were weakly positively associated with headache diary result but not related to migraine severity|
High serum levels of 25-OH-D3 were related to a higher headache diary result.
|Kjaergaard (2012) ||Cross-sectional||11,614 participants of the sixth survey of the Tromsø study in 2007–2008||Range: 55–58||No data||Serum vitamin D levels were inversely associated with non-migraine headache but there was no significant association between migraine and serum vitamin D.||Associated|
|Knutsen (2014) ||Cross-sectional||Headache (n = 63)||No data||No data||Mean serum vitamin D levels in patients with headaches were lower than in those suffering from musculoskeletal pain or fatigue.|
Headache was inversely associated with hypovitaminosis D.