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Open AccessArticle

Raw Garlic Consumption and Risk of Liver Cancer: A Population-Based Case-Control Study in Eastern China

1
Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), CA 90095, USA
2
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China
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Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
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Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing 210009, China
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Dafeng Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Dafeng 224100, China
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Ganyu Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Ganyu 222003, China
7
Chuzhou County Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Chuzhou 223001, China
8
Tongshan County Center for Disease control and Prevention, Tongshan 221006, China
9
Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
10
School of Nursing, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
11
Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Health Professions, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA
12
Center for Human Nutrition, Department of Medicine, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
13
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100083, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Co-Senior Authors.
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2038; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092038
Received: 26 July 2019 / Revised: 20 August 2019 / Accepted: 22 August 2019 / Published: 31 August 2019
Although the major risk factors for liver cancer have been established, preventive factors for liver cancer have not been fully explored. We evaluated the association between raw garlic consumption and liver cancer in a large population-based case-control study in Eastern China. The study was conducted in Jiangsu, China, from 2003 to 2010. A total of 2011 incident liver cancer cases and 7933 randomly selected population-controls were interviewed. Epidemiological data including raw garlic intake and other exposures were collected, and serum markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were assayed. Overall, eating raw garlic twice or more per week was inversely associated with liver cancer, with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 0.77 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62–0.96) compared to those ingesting no raw garlic or less than twice per week. In stratified analyses, high intake of raw garlic was inversely associated with liver cancer among Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negative individuals, frequent alcohol drinkers, those having history of eating mold-contaminated food or drinking raw water, and those without family history of liver cancer. Marginal interactions on an additive scale were observed between low raw garlic intake and HBsAg positivity (attributable proportion due to interaction (AP) = 0.31, 95% CI: -0.01–0.62) and heavy alcohol drinking (AP = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.00–0.57). Raw garlic consumption is inversely associated with liver cancer. Such an association shed some light on the potential etiologic role of garlic intake on liver cancer, which in turn might provide a possible dietary intervention to reduce liver cancer in Chinese population. View Full-Text
Keywords: liver cancer; garlic; hepatitis B virus; interaction; Chinese population liver cancer; garlic; hepatitis B virus; interaction; Chinese population
MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, X.; Baecker, A.; Wu, M.; Zhou, J.-Y.; Yang, J.; Han, R.-Q.; Wang, P.-H.; Liu, A.-M.; Gu, X.; Zhang, X.-F.; Wang, X.-S.; Su, M.; Hu, X.; Sun, Z.; Li, G.; Jin, Z.-Y.; Jung, S.Y.; Mu, L.; He, N.; Lu, Q.-Y.; Li, L.; Zhao, J.-K.; Zhang, Z.-F. Raw Garlic Consumption and Risk of Liver Cancer: A Population-Based Case-Control Study in Eastern China. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2038.

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