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Ultrasound Muscle Assessment and Nutritional Status in Institutionalized Older Adults: A Pilot Study
Open AccessReview

The Role of Water Homeostasis in Muscle Function and Frailty: A Review

1
Research Unit, Consorci Sanitari del Maresme, 08304 Mataró (Barcelona), Spain
2
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
3
Intensive Care Unit, Consorci Sanitari del Maresme, 08304 Mataró (Barcelona), Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1857; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081857
Received: 15 July 2019 / Revised: 31 July 2019 / Accepted: 7 August 2019 / Published: 9 August 2019
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PDF [738 KB, uploaded 16 August 2019]
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Abstract

Water, the main component of the body, is distributed in the extracellular and intracellular compartments. Water exchange between these compartments is mainly governed by osmotic pressure. Extracellular water osmolarity must remain within very narrow limits to be compatible with life. Older adults lose the thirst sensation and the ability to concentrate urine, and this favours increased extracellular osmolarity (hyperosmotic stress). This situation, in turn, leads to cell dehydration, which has severe consequences for the intracellular protein structure and function and, ultimately, results in cell damage. Moreover, the fact that water determines cell volume may act as a metabolic signal, with cell swelling acting as an anabolic signal and cell shrinkage acting as a catabolic signal. Ageing also leads to a progressive loss in muscle mass and strength. Muscle strength is the main determinant of functional capacity, and, in elderly people, depends more on muscle quality than on muscle quantity (or muscle mass). Intracellular water content in lean mass has been related to muscle strength, functional capacity, and frailty risk, and has been proposed as an indicator of muscle quality and cell hydration. This review aims to assess the role of hyperosmotic stress and cell dehydration on muscle function and frailty. View Full-Text
Keywords: total body water; intracellular water; dehydration; osmotic stress; ageing; anabolic resistance; muscle mass; muscle strength; functional capacity; frailty total body water; intracellular water; dehydration; osmotic stress; ageing; anabolic resistance; muscle mass; muscle strength; functional capacity; frailty
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Lorenzo, I.; Serra-Prat, M.; Yébenes, J.C. The Role of Water Homeostasis in Muscle Function and Frailty: A Review. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1857.

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