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Open AccessArticle

Vitamin D Status and Indices of Mineral Homeostasis in the Population: Differences Between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D

1
Department of Public Health, University of Naples “Federico II”, 80131 Naples (NA), Italy
2
Department of Medicine, Surgery and Odontoiatry “Scuola Medica Salernitana”, University of Salerno, 84081 Baronissi (SA), Italy
3
Department of Physics, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano (SA), Italy
4
Istituto Sistemi Complessi, Centro Nazionale Ricerche, 00185 Rome, Italy
5
Maternal-Infant Department, Hospital “San Pio”, 82028 Benevento (BN), Italy
6
Departement of Epidemiology and Prevention, IRCCS Neuromed, 86077 Pozzilli (IS), Italy
7
Mediterranea Cardiocentro, 80133 Napoli (NA), Italy
8
Department of Medicine and Surgery, Research Center in Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine (EPIMED), University of Insubria, 21100 Varese (VA), Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1777; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081777
Received: 24 June 2019 / Revised: 23 July 2019 / Accepted: 31 July 2019 / Published: 1 August 2019
Opinions are conflicting about the epidemiology of vitamin D deficiency. This population-based study investigated cross-sectionally the associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (calcidiol) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol) with indices of mineral homeostasis. Study cohort consisted of 979 persons of the Moli-Sani study, both sexes, ages ≥35 years. Data collection included serum calcidiol by different assays, serum calcitriol, serum parathyroid hormone, serum and urine calcium, and phosphorus. Prevalence of mild-to-moderate calcidiol deficiency (10–19 ng/mL) was 36.4% and did not associate with hypocalcemia or hyperparathyroidism. Prevalence of severe calcidiol deficiency (<10 ng/mL) was 16.8% and associated with hyperparathyroidism only (odds ratio = 8.81, 95% confidence interval = 2.4/32.9). Prevalence of calcitriol deficiency (<18 pg/mL) was 3.1% and associated with hypocalcemia (29.1, 7.4/114.5) but not hyperparathyroidism. In ANOVA along concentration strata, lower calcidiol associated with higher parathyroid hormone only (p < 0.001). Lower calcitriol associated with lower serum and urine calcium (p < 0.001) but not with parathyroid hormone. Calcidiol findings were consistent with different calcidiol assays. In the population, mild-to-moderate calcidiol deficiency did not associate with abnormal mineral homeostasis. Severe calcidiol deficiency and calcitriol deficiency associated with different disorders: lower calcidiol associated with hyperparathyroidism whereas lower calcitriol associated with hypocalcemia and low urine calcium. View Full-Text
Keywords: 25-hydroxyvitamin D (calcidiol); 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol); parathyroid hormone; calcium; phosphorus; epidemiology 25-hydroxyvitamin D (calcidiol); 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol); parathyroid hormone; calcium; phosphorus; epidemiology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cirillo, M.; Bilancio, G.; Guarino, E.; Cavallo, P.; Lombardi, C.; Costanzo, S.; De Curtis, A.; Di Castelnuovo, A.; Iacoviello, L. Vitamin D Status and Indices of Mineral Homeostasis in the Population: Differences Between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1777. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081777

AMA Style

Cirillo M, Bilancio G, Guarino E, Cavallo P, Lombardi C, Costanzo S, De Curtis A, Di Castelnuovo A, Iacoviello L. Vitamin D Status and Indices of Mineral Homeostasis in the Population: Differences Between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D. Nutrients. 2019; 11(8):1777. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081777

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cirillo, Massimo; Bilancio, Giancarlo; Guarino, Ermanno; Cavallo, Pierpaolo; Lombardi, Cinzia; Costanzo, Simona; De Curtis, Amalia; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Iacoviello, Licia. 2019. "Vitamin D Status and Indices of Mineral Homeostasis in the Population: Differences Between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D" Nutrients 11, no. 8: 1777. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081777

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