Next Article in Journal
A Brief Review of Genetic Approaches to the Study of Food Preferences: Current Knowledge and Future Directions
Next Article in Special Issue
Evaluation of an Eight-Week Whole-Food Plant-Based Lifestyle Modification Program
Previous Article in Journal
Validation and Application of Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ® p180 Targeted Metabolomics Kit Using Human Milk
Previous Article in Special Issue
Crohn’s Disease Remission with a Plant-Based Diet: A Case Report
Open AccessArticle

Physiological and Dietary Determinants of Iron Status in Spanish Vegetarians

Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN-CSIC), José Antonio Novais, 10, 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1734; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081734
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 23 July 2019 / Accepted: 24 July 2019 / Published: 26 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegetarian, Vegan Diets and Human Health)
Vegetarian diets may compromise iron status, as they provide non-haem iron which has low bioavailability. Spanish lacto-ovo vegetarians (n = 49) and vegans (n = 55) were recruited and haematological and biochemical iron parameters were analysed. Food and supplements consumption, body composition, physical activity, menstrual blood losses and hormonal contraceptive use were assessed. Four groups were studied: Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA), iron depletion (ferritin <15 ng/mL), iron deficiency (ferritin ≥15 to ≤30 ng/mL), and iron sufficiency (ferritin >30 ng/mL). IDA was uncommon (n = 5, 4.8%), 27.9% of participants were iron-depleted, and 30.8% were iron-deficient. Serum ferritin was lower in women than men (p < 0.001) and IDA and iron depleted individuals were all women. There were no differences attributed to diet type, time being vegetarian or physical activity. The menstrual period length was negatively associated with transferrin saturation (ρ = −0.364, p = 0.001) and hormonal contraceptive use (ρ = −0.276, p = 0.014). Iron supplements were consumed most frequently by IDA and iron-deficient subjects (p = 0.031). Conclusions: Iron status did not vary between lacto-ovo vegetarians and vegans and there was not an influence of the time following a vegetarian diet. Although men were iron-sufficient, iron deficiency was frequent in women, who should apply strategies to increase iron bioavailability, especially if they experience intense menstrual blood losses. View Full-Text
Keywords: iron deficiency; iron status; body iron; ferritin; menstruation; vegetarian; vegan; supplementation iron deficiency; iron status; body iron; ferritin; menstruation; vegetarian; vegan; supplementation
MDPI and ACS Style

Gallego-Narbón, A.; Zapatera, B.; Vaquero, M.P. Physiological and Dietary Determinants of Iron Status in Spanish Vegetarians. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1734.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop