Environmental factors in the first years of life are crucial for a child’s neurodevelopment. Research on the association between breastfeeding and neurodevelopment is inconclusive, while research on the possible association between other dietary factors and neurodevelopment is inadequate in children as young as one year of age. The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between both breastfeeding and other dietary factors and the neurodevelopment of one-year-old children in Norway. Methods: Participants were recruited from kindergartens in four Norwegian counties in 2017. A questionnaire including questions about dietary factors and breastfeeding, and a standardised age-related questionnaire on neurodevelopment (the Ages and Stages Questionnaire), were completed by parents of one-year-olds. Linear regressions adjusting for relevant covariates were conducted to explore the associations. Results: In our sample of 212 one-year-old children, a longer duration of breastfeeding was associated with higher neurodevelopmental scores. Dietary intake of fish, fruits and vegetables was also strongly associated with higher neurodevelopmental scores, even after adjustment for breastfeeding and maternal education. Conclusion: Our results indicate that healthy dietary factors are important for neurodevelopment in young children, with measurable effects already at the age of one year.
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