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Open AccessArticle

Lupin Peptide T9 (GQEQSHQDEGVIVR) Modulates the Mutant PCSK9D374Y Pathway: in vitro Characterization of its Dual Hypocholesterolemic Behavior

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Milan, 20133 Milan, Italy
2
Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Milan, 20133 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1665; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071665
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 14 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 20 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Bioactive Peptides on Human Health)
GQEQSHQDEGVIVR (T9) is a peptide originated by the tryptic digestion of lupin β-conglutin that is absorbed in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. A previous study has shown that T9 impairs the protein–protein interaction between mutant D374Y Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin 9 (PCSK9D374Y) and the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), thus exerting a hypocholesterolemic effect. Moreover, a bioinformatic study predicting that T9 may potentially act as an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCoAR), has suggested a complementary cholesterol-lowering activity. The present study demonstrates that T9 inhibits in vitro the HMGCoAR functionality with an IC50 value of 99.5 ± 0.56 µM. Through the inhibition of either HMGCoAR or PCSK9D374Y activities, T9 enhances the LDLR protein levels leading to an improved ability of HepG2 cells transfected with the mutant PCSK9D374Y-FLAG plasmid to uptake extracellular LDL with a final cholesterol-lowering effect. In addition, T9 modulates the PCSK9D374Y signaling pathway in transfected HepG2 cells leading to a decrease of PCSK9D374Y and HNF-1α protein levels. All these results indicate that the hypocholesterolemic effects of T9 are due to a dual mechanism of action involving either the modulation of the PCSK9D374Y or LDLR pathways. This may represent an added value from a therapeutic point of view. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioactive peptides; HepG2; LDLR; lupin; PCSK9 bioactive peptides; HepG2; LDLR; lupin; PCSK9
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Lammi, C.; Bollati, C.; Lecca, D.; Abbracchio, M.P.; Arnoldi, A. Lupin Peptide T9 (GQEQSHQDEGVIVR) Modulates the Mutant PCSK9D374Y Pathway: in vitro Characterization of its Dual Hypocholesterolemic Behavior. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1665.

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