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Open AccessReview

Calcium Intake and Health

1
Department of Mother and Child Health Research, Institute for Clinical Effectiveness and Health Policy (IECS-CONICET), Emilio Ravignani 2024, Buenos Aires 1414, Argentina
2
Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7725, South Africa
3
Departamento de Salud, Universidad Nacional de La Matanza, San Justo 1903, Argentina
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1606; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071606
Received: 11 June 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 15 July 2019
There are striking inequities in calcium intake between rich and poor populations. Appropriate calcium intake has shown many health benefits, such as reduction of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, lower blood pressure particularly among young people, prevention of osteoporosis and colorectal adenomas, lower cholesterol values, and lower blood pressure in the progeny of mothers taking sufficient calcium during pregnancy. Studies have refuted some calcium supplementation side effects like damage to the iron status, formation of renal stones and myocardial infarction in older people. Attention should be given to bone resorption in post-partum women after calcium supplementation withdrawal. Mechanisms linking low calcium intake and blood pressure are mediated by parathyroid hormone raise that increases intracellular calcium in vascular smooth muscle cells leading to vasoconstriction. At the population level, an increase of around 400–500 mg/day could reduce the differences in calcium intake between high- and middle-low-income countries. The fortification of food and water seems a possible strategy to reach this goal. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium intake; calcium; health; hypertensive disorders; fortification calcium intake; calcium; health; hypertensive disorders; fortification
MDPI and ACS Style

Cormick, G.; Belizán, J.M. Calcium Intake and Health. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1606.

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