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Estimation of Energy Intake by a Food Frequency Questionnaire: Calibration and Validation with the Doubly Labeled Water Method in Japanese Older People

1
National Institute of Health and Nutrition, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Tokyo 162-8636, Japan,
2
Department of Pharmacology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 216-8511, Japan
3
Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577, Japan
4
Laboratory of Applied Health Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan
5
Senior Citizen’s Welfare Section, Kameoka City Government, Kyoto 621-8501, Japan
6
Institute for Active Health, Kyoto University of Advanced Science, Kyoto 621-8555, Japan
7
Department of Health, Sports and Nutrition, Faculty of Health and Welfare, Kobe Women’s University, Hyogo 650-0046, Japan
8
Faculty of Health and Sports Science, Doshisha University, Kyoto 610-0394, Japan
9
Department of Health and Nutrition, Faculty of Health and Human Life, Nagoya Bunri University, Aichi 492-8520, Japan
10
Faculty of Sports and Health Science, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1546; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071546
Received: 27 May 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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PDF [258 KB, uploaded 9 July 2019]

Abstract

Accurate assessments of a target population’s energy intake (EI) are essential to prevent poor nutritional status. However, self-reported dietary records (DRs) or food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are not always accurate, thereby requiring validation and calibration studies. This study aimed to validate the EI estimated by a FFQ using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Participants were 109 Japanese older adults (50 women and 59 men) aged 65–88 years. The EI was obtained by a DR and 47-item FFQ over 1 year. The total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured by DLW for ~2 weeks. EI was significantly lower than TEE (p < 0.01); ratios of EI assessed by DR and FFQ against TEE were 0.91 ± 0.17 and 0.82 ± 0.22, respectively. TEE was significantly and moderately correlated with the EI estimated by the DR (r = 0.45, p < 0.01) and FFQ (r = 0.37, p < 0.01). Furthermore, the EI correlation coefficients estimated by DR and the FFQ in this study were not significantly different (p = 0.46). The EI/TEE ratio was significantly and negatively correlated with the body mass index (BMI). In conclusion, EI estimated with a DR or FFQ modestly correlated with TEE, and calibrating EI with a developed equation in this study can attenuate the underestimation of EI. View Full-Text
Keywords: food frequency questionnaire; energy intake; doubly labeled water; total energy expenditure; validity food frequency questionnaire; energy intake; doubly labeled water; total energy expenditure; validity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Watanabe, D.; Nanri, H.; Sagayama, H.; Yoshida, T.; Itoi, A.; Yamaguchi, M.; Yokoyama, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Goto, C.; Ebine, N.; Higaki, Y.; Ishikawa-Takata, K.; Kimura, M.; Yamada, Y.; Kyoto-Kameoka Study Group. Estimation of Energy Intake by a Food Frequency Questionnaire: Calibration and Validation with the Doubly Labeled Water Method in Japanese Older People. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1546.

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