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A Personalised Dietary Approach—A Way Forward to Manage Nutrient Deficiency, Effects of the Western Diet, and Food Intolerances in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

1
Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1023, New Zealand
2
Nutrition Society of New Zealand, Palmerston North 4444, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1532; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071532
Received: 7 May 2019 / Revised: 29 June 2019 / Accepted: 2 July 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD))
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Abstract

This review discusses the personalised dietary approach with respect to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It identifies gene–nutrient interactions associated with the nutritional deficiencies that people with IBD commonly experience, and the role of the Western diet in influencing these. It also discusses food intolerances and how particular genotypes can affect these. It is well established that with respect to food there is no “one size fits all” diet for those with IBD. Gene–nutrient interactions may help explain this variability in response to food that is associated with IBD. Nutrigenomic research, which examines the effects of food and its constituents on gene expression, shows that—like a number of pharmaceutical products—food can have beneficial effects or have adverse (side) effects depending on a person’s genotype. Pharmacogenetic research is identifying gene variants with adverse reactions to drugs, and this is modifying clinical practice and allowing individualised treatment. Nutrigenomic research could enable individualised treatment in persons with IBD and enable more accurate tailoring of food intake, to avoid exacerbating malnutrition and to counter some of the adverse effects of the Western diet. It may also help to establish the dietary pattern that is most protective against IBD. View Full-Text
Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease; Westernisation; genotypes; nutrient deficiency; food intolerance; FODMAPs; gluten; fructose; lactose; brassica; mushrooms inflammatory bowel disease; Westernisation; genotypes; nutrient deficiency; food intolerance; FODMAPs; gluten; fructose; lactose; brassica; mushrooms
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Laing, B.B.; Lim, A.G.; Ferguson, L.R. A Personalised Dietary Approach—A Way Forward to Manage Nutrient Deficiency, Effects of the Western Diet, and Food Intolerances in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1532.

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