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Garlic Consumption and All-Cause Mortality among Chinese Oldest-Old Individuals: A Population-Based Cohort Study

National Institute of Environmental Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100021, China
Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China
Division of Non-Communicable Disease Control and Community Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China
Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1504;
Received: 18 May 2019 / Revised: 15 June 2019 / Accepted: 24 June 2019 / Published: 30 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Vegetables and Fruits)
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In vitro and in vivo experimental studies have shown garlic has protective effects on the aging process; however, there is no evidence that garlic consumption is associated with all-cause mortality among oldest-old individuals (≥80 years). From 1998 to 2011, 27,437 oldest-old participants (mean age: 92.9 years) were recruited from 23 provinces in China. The frequencies of garlic consumption at baseline and at age 60 were collected. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for potential covariates were constructed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) relating garlic consumption to all-cause mortality. Among 92,505 person-years of follow-up from baseline to September 1, 2014, 22,321 participants died. Participants who often (≥5 times/week) or occasionally (1–4 times/week) consumed garlic survived longer than those who rarely (less than once/week) consumed it (p < 0.001). Participants who consumed garlic occasionally or often had a lower risk for mortality than those who rarely consumed garlic at baseline; the adjusted HRs for mortality were 0.92(0.89–0.94) and 0.89(0.85–0.92), respectively. The inverse associations between garlic consumption and all-cause mortality were robust in sensitivity analyses and subgroup analyses. In this study, habitual consumption of garlic was associated with a lower all-cause mortality risk; this advocates further investigation into garlic consumption for promoting longevity. View Full-Text
Keywords: garlic; mortality; survival; oldest old; elderly garlic; mortality; survival; oldest old; elderly

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Shi, X.; Lv, Y.; Mao, C.; Yuan, J.; Yin, Z.; Gao, X.; Zhang, Z. Garlic Consumption and All-Cause Mortality among Chinese Oldest-Old Individuals: A Population-Based Cohort Study. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1504.

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