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Impairment between Oxidant and Antioxidant Systems: Short- and Long-term Implications for Athletes’ Health

1
Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialities, Sapienza University of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy
2
Department of General Surgery and Surgical Speciality Paride Stefanini, Sapienza University of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy
3
Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, University of Rome "Foro Italico", 00135 Rome, Italy
4
Department of Medical-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, 04100 Latina, Italy
5
Mediterranea Cardiocentro, 80122 Napoli, Italy
6
Department of Biomedical, Biotechnological and Translational Sciences (S.Bi.Bi.T.), Anatomy and Histology Unit, University of Parma, Ospedale Maggiore, 43126 Parma, Italy
7
Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, Course E, Sapienza University of Rome, 04100 Latina (LT), Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nocella and Cammisotto equally contributed to this work.
Cavarretta and Carnevale declare joint seniorship.
§
Membership of the SMiLe Group is provided in the Acknowledgments.
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1353; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061353
Received: 19 May 2019 / Revised: 6 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 15 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influences of Calorie Intake on Aging)
The role of oxidative stress, an imbalance between reactive oxygen species production (ROS) and antioxidants, has been described in several patho-physiological conditions, including cardiovascular, neurological diseases and cancer, thus impacting on individuals’ lifelong health. Diet, environmental pollution, and physical activity can play a significant role in the oxidative balance of an organism. Even if physical training has proved to be able to counteract the negative effects caused by free radicals and to provide many health benefits, it is also known that intensive physical activity induces oxidative stress, inflammation, and free radical-mediated muscle damage. Indeed, variations in type, intensity, and duration of exercise training can activate different patterns of oxidant–antioxidant balance leading to different responses in terms of molecular and cellular damage. The aim of the present review is to discuss (1) the role of oxidative status in athletes in relation to exercise training practice, (2) the implications for muscle damage, (3) the long-term effect for neurodegenerative disease manifestations, (4) the role of antioxidant supplementations in preventing oxidative damages. View Full-Text
Keywords: oxidative stress; muscle damage; neurodegeneration; antioxidant; athletes oxidative stress; muscle damage; neurodegeneration; antioxidant; athletes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nocella, C.; Cammisotto, V.; Pigozzi, F.; Borrione, P.; Fossati, C.; D’Amico, A.; Cangemi, R.; Peruzzi, M.; Gobbi, G.; Ettorre, E.; Frati, G.; Cavarretta, E.; Carnevale, R.; SMiLe Group. Impairment between Oxidant and Antioxidant Systems: Short- and Long-term Implications for Athletes’ Health. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1353.

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