Frequency and Quantity of Egg Intake Is Not Associated with Dyslipidemia: The Hellenic National Nutrition and Health Survey (HNNHS)
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera odos 75, 11855 Athens, Greece
Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Department of Cardiology, “Elpis” General Hospital of Athens, 11522 Athens, Greece
Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University Campus, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
First Department of Pediatrics, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Mikras Asias 75, 11527 Athens, Greece
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education Harokopio University, Athens, Eleftheriou Venizelou 70, 17676 Athens, Greece
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
HNNHS Contributors and membership of the HNNHS Advisory Committee are provided in the Acknowledgements.
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1105; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051105
Received: 20 April 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 10 May 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cholesterol and Nutrition)
Background: Gaps remain on the safety of egg intake on cardiovascular health, setting the study’s aim to investigate the association between quantity and frequency of egg consumption, with established dyslipidemia. Methods: Study participants (N = 3558, 40.3% males) included individuals from the Hellenic National and Nutrition Health Survey (HNNHS), of national representation. Quantity and frequency of egg consumption was determined. Minimally adjusted, multivariable logistic and linear analysis were used to assess egg consumption and dyslipidemia. Results: The more frequent egg consumption compared to no or rare egg consumption significantly decreased the odds of dyslipidemia in the minimally adjusted (Odds Ratio (OR) for frequency: 0.83; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.752, 0.904; OR for quantified frequency: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.796, 0.963) and the fully adjusted models (OR for frequency: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.718, 0.887; OR for quantified frequency: 0.85; 95%CI: 0.759, 0.945). Level of serum cholesterol and LDL-c were significantly lower with higher frequency and quantified frequency of egg consumption in all models. Conclusion: Eggs do not increase the risk of dyslipidemia and can be consumed as part of a healthy diet that is high in fiber and low in saturated fat, without excessive energy intake, by all individuals.