The gut-microbiome-brain axis is now recognized as an essential part in the regulation of systemic metabolism and homeostasis. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that dietary patterns can influence the development of metabolic alterations and inflammation through the effects of nutrients on a multitude of variables, including microbiome composition, release of microbial products, gastrointestinal signaling molecules, and neurotransmitters. These signaling molecules are, in turn, implicated in the regulation of the immune system, either promoting or inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the expansion of specific leukocyte subpopulations, such as Th17 and Treg cells, which are relevant in the development of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative conditions. Metabolic diseases, like obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, are related to inadequate dietary patterns and promote variations in the aforementioned signaling pathways in patients with these conditions, which have been linked to alterations in neurological functions and mental health. Thus, maintenance of adequate dietary patterns should be an essential component of any strategy aiming to prevent neurological pathologies derived from systemic metabolic alterations. The present review summarizes current knowledge on the role of nutrition in the modulation of the immune system and its impact in the development of neuroinflammation and neurological disease.
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