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Association of Infant Feeding Patterns with Taste Preferences in European Children and Adolescents: A Retrospective Latent Profile Analysis

Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology—BIPS, Achterstr. 30, 28359 Bremen, Germany
Institute for Public Health and Nursing Research—IPP, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany
Research and Education Institute of Child Health, 2035 Lefcosia, Cyprus
Department of Chronic Diseases, National Institute for Health Development, 11619 Tallin, Estonia
Institute of Food Sciences, National Research Council, 83100 Avellino, Italy
GENUD (Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development) Research Group, Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2), Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Aragón (IIS Aragón), Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn), University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
Department of Pediatrics, Medical School, University of Pécs, 7623 Pécs, Hungary
Department of Biomedicine and Public Health, School of Health and Education, University of Skövde, 54128 Skövde, Sweden
Department. of Pediatrics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, 40530 Gothenburg, Sweden
Department of Preventive and Predictive Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, 20133 Milan, Italy
Faculty of Mathematics/Computer Science, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Shared first authorship.
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1040;
Received: 14 April 2019 / Revised: 4 May 2019 / Accepted: 6 May 2019 / Published: 9 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Behavior and Physical Activity in Children and Adolescents)
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The aim was to investigate associations between the duration of infant feeding practices (FP) and taste preferences (TP) in European children and adolescents. A total of 5526 children (6–16 years old) of the I.Family study completed a Food and Beverage Preference Questionnaire to measure their preferences for sweet, fatty and bitter tastes. Mothers retrospectively reported the FPs duration in months: exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), exclusive formula milk feeding (EFMF), combined breastfeeding (BF&FMF) and the age at the introduction of complementary foods (CF). Using logistic regression analyses and latent class analysis (latent profiles of FP and CF were identified), we explored associations between profiles and TP, adjusting for various covariates, including the Healthy Diet Adherence Score (HDAS). A total of 48% of children had short durations of EBF (≤4 months) and BF&FMF (≤6 months) and were introduced to CF early (<6 months). No significant relationship was observed between the single FPs and TP, even when considering common profiles of FP. HDAS was inversely associated with sweet and fatty TP, but positively with bitter TP. Contrary to our hypotheses, we did not observe associations between FP and children’s TP later in life. Further studies with higher FP variation and longitudinal design are needed to investigate the causal associations between infant FP and taste preferences later in life. View Full-Text
Keywords: breastfeeding; formula milk; taste preference; healthy diet adherence; children; IDEFICS study; I.Family breastfeeding; formula milk; taste preference; healthy diet adherence; children; IDEFICS study; I.Family

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Sina, E.; Buck, C.; Jilani, H.; Tornaritis, M.; Veidebaum, T.; Russo, P.; Moreno, L.A.; Molnar, D.; Eiben, G.; Marild, S.; Pala, V.; Ahrens, W.; Hebestreit, A. Association of Infant Feeding Patterns with Taste Preferences in European Children and Adolescents: A Retrospective Latent Profile Analysis. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1040.

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