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Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 831; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040831

Glutamine Therapy Reduces Inflammation and Extracellular Trap Release in Experimental Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome of Pulmonary Origin

1
Laboratory of Pulmonary Investigation, Carlos Chagas Filho Institute of Biophysics, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-902, Brazil
2
Laboratory of Clinical Bacteriology and Immunology, Department of Toxicological and Clinical Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-902, Brazil
3
Laboratory of Leishmaniasis Immunobiology, Immunology Department, Paulo de Góes Microbiology Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-902, Brazil
4
Laboratory of Bioenergetics and Mitochondrial Physiology, Institute of Medical Biochemistry Leopoldo de Meis, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-902, Brazil
5
Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Carlos Chagas Filho Institute of Biophysics, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-902, Brazil
6
Department of Surgical Sciences and Integrated Diagnostics (DISC), University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy
7
IRCCS Policlinico San Martino Hospital, 16132 Genoa, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 March 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 12 April 2019
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Abstract

The innate immune response plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Glutamine (Gln) decreases lung inflammation in experimental ARDS, but its impact on the formation of extracellular traps (ETs) in the lung is unknown. In a mouse model of endotoxin-induced pulmonary ARDS, the effects of Gln treatment on leukocyte counts and ET content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), inflammatory profile in lung tissue, and lung morphofunction were evaluated in vivo. Furthermore, ET formation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities were tested in vitro. Our in vivo results demonstrated that Gln treatment reduced ET release (as indicated by cell-free-DNA content and myeloperoxidase activity), decreased lung inflammation (reductions in interferon-γ and increases in interleukin-10 levels), and improved lung morpho-function (decreased static lung elastance and alveolar collapse) in comparison with ARDS animals treated with saline. Moreover, Gln reduced ET and ROS formation in BALF cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide in vitro, but it did not alter GPx or GR activity. In this model of endotoxin-induced pulmonary ARDS, treatment with Gln reduced pulmonary functional and morphological impairment, inflammation, and ET release in the lung. View Full-Text
Keywords: glutamine; pulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome; lung mechanics; extracellular traps; reactive oxygen species glutamine; pulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome; lung mechanics; extracellular traps; reactive oxygen species
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de Oliveira, G.P.; Kitoko, J.Z.; de Souza Lima-Gomes, P.; Rochael, N.C.; de Araújo, C.C.; Lugon, P.N.; dos Santos, H.L.; Martins, E.G.L.; Ornellas, F.M.; de Oliveira, H.D.; Morales, M.M.; Olsen, P.C.; Galina, A.; Silva, P.L.; Saraiva, E.M.; Pelosi, P.; Rocco, P.R.M. Glutamine Therapy Reduces Inflammation and Extracellular Trap Release in Experimental Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome of Pulmonary Origin. Nutrients 2019, 11, 831.

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