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Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 788;

Probiotics in Extraintestinal Diseases: Current Trends and New Directions

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis 68100, Greece
Department of Applied Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: MRC Protein Phosphorylation & Ubiquitylation Unit, University of Dundee, Sir James Black Centre, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK.
Received: 2 March 2019 / Revised: 26 March 2019 / Accepted: 2 April 2019 / Published: 5 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Traditional and Next Generation Probiotics)
PDF [320 KB, uploaded 5 April 2019]


Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host. Their positive supplementation outcomes on several gastrointestinal disorders are well defined. Nevertheless, their actions are not limited to the gut, but may also impart their beneficial effects at distant sites and organs. In this regard, in this review article we: (i) comprehensively describe the main mechanisms of action of probiotics at distant sites, including bones, skin, and brain; (ii) critically present their therapeutic potential against bone, skin, and neuronal diseases (e.g., osteoporosis, non-healing wounds and autoimmune skin illnesses, mood, behavior, memory, and cognitive impairments); (iii) address the current gaps in the preclinical and clinical research; and (iv) indicate new research directions and suggest future investigations. View Full-Text
Keywords: probiotics; gastrointestinal; skin; bone; neuronal disease; microbiota probiotics; gastrointestinal; skin; bone; neuronal disease; microbiota
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Kiousi, D.E.; Karapetsas, A.; Karolidou, K.; Panayiotidis, M.I.; Pappa, A.; Galanis, A. Probiotics in Extraintestinal Diseases: Current Trends and New Directions. Nutrients 2019, 11, 788.

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