Next Article in Journal
Pomegranate Extract Improves Maximal Performance of Trained Cyclists after an Exhausting Endurance Trial: A Randomised Controlled Trial
Next Article in Special Issue
The Chinese Herbal Formula PAPZ Ameliorates Behavioral Abnormalities in Depressive Mice
Previous Article in Journal
The Influence of Meal Frequency and Timing on Health in Humans: The Role of Fasting
Previous Article in Special Issue
Tryptophan-Tyrosine Dipeptide, the Core Sequence of β-Lactolin, Improves Memory by Modulating the Dopamine System
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Palatability of Goat’s versus Cow’s Milk: Insights from the Analysis of Eating Behavior and Gene Expression in the Appetite-Relevant Brain Circuit in Laboratory Animal Models

1
Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Waikato, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand
2
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55113, USA
3
Dairy Goat Cooperative (NZ) Ltd., Hamilton 3206, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The authors contributed equally to the finished manuscript.
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 720; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040720
Received: 11 February 2019 / Revised: 17 March 2019 / Accepted: 25 March 2019 / Published: 28 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Central Nervous System)
  |  
PDF [1397 KB, uploaded 28 March 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Goat’s (GM) and cow’s milk (CM) are dietary alternatives with select health benefits shown in human and animal studies. Surprisingly, no systematic analysis of palatability or preference for GM vs. CM has been performed to date. Here, we present a comprehensive investigation of short-term intake and palatability profiles of GM and CM in laboratory mice and rats. We studied consumption in no-choice and choice scenarios, including meal microstructure, and by using isocaloric milks and milk-enriched solid diets. Feeding results are accompanied by qPCR data of relevant genes in the energy balance-related hypothalamus and brain stem, and in the nucleus accumbens, which regulates eating for palatability. We found that GM and CM are palatable to juvenile, adult, and aged rodents. Given a choice, animals prefer GM- to CM-based diets. Analysis of meal microstructure using licking patterns points to enhanced palatability of and, possibly, greater motivation toward GM over CM. Most profound changes in gene expression after GM vs. CM were associated with the brain systems driving consumption for reward. We conclude that, while both GM and CM are palatable, GM is preferred over CM by laboratory animals, and this preference is driven by central mechanisms controlling eating for pleasure. View Full-Text
Keywords: milk; hypothalamus; nucleus accumbens; reward; appetite; palatability milk; hypothalamus; nucleus accumbens; reward; appetite; palatability
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Klockars, A.; Wood, E.L.; Gartner, S.N.; McColl, L.K.; Levine, A.S.; Carpenter, E.A.; Prosser, C.G.; Olszewski, P.K. Palatability of Goat’s versus Cow’s Milk: Insights from the Analysis of Eating Behavior and Gene Expression in the Appetite-Relevant Brain Circuit in Laboratory Animal Models. Nutrients 2019, 11, 720.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top