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Article

Amount, Preparation and Type of Formula Consumed and Its Association with Weight Gain in Infants Participating in the WIC Program in Hawaii and Puerto Rico

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Nutrition Program, Graduate School of Public Health, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 365067, San Juan, PR 00936-5067, Puerto Rico
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Department of Human Nutrition, Food and Animal Sciences, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Agricultural Sciences 216, 1955 East-West Rd, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
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Dental and Craniofacial Genomics Core, Endocrinology Section School of Medicine, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 365067, San Juan, PR 00936-5067, Puerto Rico
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Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, Robert Stempel College of Public Health & Social Work, Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th Street, AHC 5-313, Miami, FL 33199, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 695; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030695
Received: 17 January 2019 / Revised: 18 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 24 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Childhood Diet and the Impact on Physical and Cognitive Development)
The aim of this study was to assess the association between amount (below or above recommendations), preparation (liquid vs. powder), and type (regular vs. hydrolysate) of infant formula consumed and weight in infants participating in the Women, Infant and Children (WIC) Program in Hawaii (HI) and Puerto Rico (PR). This was a secondary analysis of 162 caregivers with healthy term 0–2-month-old infants. Socio-demographics, infant food frequency questionnaires, and weight and length were assessed at baseline and after four months. Infant feeding practices were associated with weight-for-length z-scores using multivariable logistic regression. In total, 37.7% were exclusively breastfed and 27.2% were exclusively formula-fed. Among formula users, regular (63.6%) and powder (87.0%) formula were the most common; 43.2% consumed formula above recommendations. Most infants had rapid weight gain (61.1%). Infants fed regular formula had higher odds of overweight after four months (adjusted OR = 8.77, 95% CI: 1.81–42.6) and higher odds of rapid weight gain (adjusted OR = 3.10, 95% CI: 1.12, 8.61). Those exclusively formula fed had higher odds of slow weight gain (adjusted OR = 4.07, 95% CI: 1.17–14.2). Formula preparation and amount of formula were not associated with weight. These results could inform the WIC program’s nutrition education messages on infant feeding. Studies with longer follow-up are needed to confirm these results. View Full-Text
Keywords: infant; feeding; formula; over-feeding; Hispanics; Native Hawaiians infant; feeding; formula; over-feeding; Hispanics; Native Hawaiians
MDPI and ACS Style

Graulau, R.E.; Banna, J.; Campos, M.; Gibby, C.L.K.; Palacios, C. Amount, Preparation and Type of Formula Consumed and Its Association with Weight Gain in Infants Participating in the WIC Program in Hawaii and Puerto Rico. Nutrients 2019, 11, 695. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030695

AMA Style

Graulau RE, Banna J, Campos M, Gibby CLK, Palacios C. Amount, Preparation and Type of Formula Consumed and Its Association with Weight Gain in Infants Participating in the WIC Program in Hawaii and Puerto Rico. Nutrients. 2019; 11(3):695. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030695

Chicago/Turabian Style

Graulau, Rafael E., Jinan Banna, Maribel Campos, Cheryl L.K. Gibby, and Cristina Palacios. 2019. "Amount, Preparation and Type of Formula Consumed and Its Association with Weight Gain in Infants Participating in the WIC Program in Hawaii and Puerto Rico" Nutrients 11, no. 3: 695. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030695

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