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U-Shaped Relationship between Serum Leptin Concentration and Cognitive Performance in Older Asian Adults

1
Department of Geriatric Medicine, Angers University Hospital, University Memory Clinic of Angers, UPRES EA 4638, University of Angers, 49100 Angers, France
2
Robarts Research Institute, Department of Medical Biophysics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada
3
Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, 11 Third Hospital Avenue, #06-13, SNEC Bldg, Singapore 168751, Singapore
4
Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Academic Clinical Program, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore 169857, Singapore
5
Department of Ophthalmology, Angers University Hospital, 49100 Angers, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030660
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 4 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 19 March 2019
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Abstract

The role of leptin (a hormone related to fat mass) in cognition remains equivocal. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between circulating leptin concentration and cognition in older adults, accounting for potential confounders. We categorized 1061 community-dwelling older participants ≥60 years (mean ± SD, 70.6 ± 6.4 years; 41.6% female) from the Singapore Kidney Eye Study according to quintiles of leptin concentration (≤2.64; 2.64–5.1; 5.2–8.6; 8.7–17.96; ≥18 ng/mL). Cognition was assessed using the total and domain scores of the Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT). Age, gender, body mass index, mean arterial pressure, smoking, alcohol, education, memory complaint, anxiodepressive disorders, circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, glycosylated hemoglobin, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were used as potential confounders. Participants within the lowest (Q1) and highest (Q5) leptin quintiles exhibited lower (i.e., worse) mean total AMT scores compared to those within the intermediate quintiles (Q2, Q3, and Q4). Compared to Q3 as the reference, Q1 and Q5 were associated with decreased total AMT score (respectively, β = −0.53 p = 0.018; β = −0.60 p = 0.036). Compared to Q3, Q5 was also associated with decreased subscores on anterograde (β = −0.19 p = 0.020) and retrograde episodic memories (β = −0.18 p = 0.039). We found a non-linear U-shaped relationship between circulating leptin and cognition, with both lower and higher concentrations of leptin being associated with more severe cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older Asians. View Full-Text
Keywords: leptin; cognition; older adults leptin; cognition; older adults
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Annweiler, C.; Duval, G.T.; Cheng, C.-Y.; Wong, T.-Y.; Lamoureux, E.L.; Milea, D.; Sabanayagam, C. U-Shaped Relationship between Serum Leptin Concentration and Cognitive Performance in Older Asian Adults. Nutrients 2019, 11, 660.

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