Beverage Intake and Drinking Patterns—Clues to Support Older People Living in Long-Term Care to Drink Well: DRIE and FISE Studies
2. Materials and Methods
2.3. Data Analysis
3.1. Study Flow and Participant Characteristics
3.2. Drinks Intake and Patterns
3.2.1. Hydration and Drinks Intake
3.2.2. Types of Drinks Enjoyed by Residents and Provided by Long-Term Care Facilities
3.2.3. Proportions of Drinks Consumed
3.2.4. Numbers and Timing of Drinks—Routines
3.2.5. Variety of Drinks
3.2.6. Thirst and Knowledge of Hydration Status
3.2.7. Drinks Outside Routine Provision
3.2.8. Reasons for Cutting Down on Drinks
- Offering drinks more often through the day is likely to increase fluid intake. Earlier in the day can be more helpful than later, as evening drinks may be resisted. Don’t rely on residents helping themselves to drinks, or requesting them—residents who don’t, will drink too little.
- Regular drinks provision is vital, so care home staff should know the importance of not missing drinks rounds and that all residents must be offered drinks during rounds.
- Drinks handed to residents need to provide enough fluid to meet minimum requirements. Where small cups are used, more frequent drinks are needed to ensure adequate fluid.
- Promoting more fluid with medications helps to increase fluid intake, makes swallowing pills easier and reduces the side effects from some medications .
- Improving continence support and ease of access to toilets is likely to improve drinking.
- Personal preference is key, so noting and adapting to residents’ preferences for types and presentation of drinks is vital.
- Offering hot milky drinks, fruit juice and alcohol more frequently may improve drinking and enjoyment (as these drinks are often completely consumed, and are as hydrating as water, coffee and tea).
- Asking all residents whether they sometimes drink less than they would like to and if so, why? Individualizing care to address these factors may support drinking.
- Thirst, or lack of it, is not a good guide to whether older adults are drinking enough.
- All residents of long-term care are at risk of dehydration, but focusing particular drinking support on those with cognitive deficits and diabetes will support hydration .
Conflicts of Interest
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|Characteristic, n (%) Unless Otherwise Labelled||DRIE Participants n = 188||FISE Participants|
|All FISE Participants, n = 22||Low Drinks Intake (<EFSA std), n = 10||Good Drinks Intake (≥EFSA std), n = 12|
|Age (years), mean ±SD (range)||85.7 ± 7.8|
(65 to 105)
|86.8 ± 8.5|
(68 to 100)
|81.9 ± 9.1|
(68 to 93)
|90.8 ± 5.7|
(82 to 100)
|Female||124 (66%)||16 (73%)||7 (70%)||9 (75%)|
|BMI (kg/m2), mean ± SD||25.8 ± 5.6||24.7 ± 4.4||25.1 ± 5.5||24.4 ± 3.5|
|Underweight, <20||32 (17%)||4 (18%)||2 (20%)||2 (17%)|
|Normal, 20–24.9||57 (30%)||8 (36%)||4 (40%)||4 (33%)|
|Overweight, 25–29.9||63 (34%)||7 (32%)||1 (10%)||6 (50%)|
|Obese, ≥30||36 (19%)||3 (14%)||3 (30%)||0 (0%)|
|MMSE score, mean ± SD||21.8 ± 5.7 (n = 180)||25.0 ± 4.4||22.2 ± 5.0||27.0 ± 2.3|
|Normal cognitive function (≥24)||83 (46%)||16 (73%)||5 (50%)||11 (92%)|
|Cognitive impairment (<24)||97 (54%)||6 (27%)||5 (50%)||1 (8%)|
|Barthel Index (BI) score, mean ± SD||67.4 (26.1)||79.1 ± 23.6||71.0 ± 30.1||85.8 ± 14.7|
|BI score ≥67||109 (58%)||18 (82%)||7 (70%)||11 (92%)|
|BI score <67||79 (42%)||4 (18%)||3 (30%)||1 (8%)|
|Serum osmolality * (mOsm/kg), mean ± SD||293.4 ± 8.1||292.4 ± 9.6||292.5 ± 11.4||292.3 ± 8.4|
|Dehydrated (>300 mOsm/kg)||38 (20%)||4 (18%)||2 (20%)||2 (17%)|
|Impending or current dehydration (≥295 mOsm/kg)||90 (48%)||9 (41%)||4 (40%)||5 (42%)|
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Jimoh, O.F.; Brown, T.J.; Bunn, D.; Hooper, L. Beverage Intake and Drinking Patterns—Clues to Support Older People Living in Long-Term Care to Drink Well: DRIE and FISE Studies. Nutrients 2019, 11, 447. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020447
Jimoh OF, Brown TJ, Bunn D, Hooper L. Beverage Intake and Drinking Patterns—Clues to Support Older People Living in Long-Term Care to Drink Well: DRIE and FISE Studies. Nutrients. 2019; 11(2):447. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020447Chicago/Turabian Style
Jimoh, Oluseyi F., Tracey J. Brown, Diane Bunn, and Lee Hooper. 2019. "Beverage Intake and Drinking Patterns—Clues to Support Older People Living in Long-Term Care to Drink Well: DRIE and FISE Studies" Nutrients 11, no. 2: 447. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020447