Next Article in Journal
Dietary Intake and Associated Factors in Long-Term Care Homes in Southeast Spain
Previous Article in Journal
Distorted Taste and Impaired Oral Health in Patients with Sicca Complaints
Previous Article in Special Issue
Use of Dairy and Plant-Derived Lactobacilli as Starters for Cherry Juice Fermentation
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 265;

Probiotic Enrichment and Reduction of Aflatoxins in a Traditional African Maize-Based Fermented Food

Department of Molecular Cell Biology, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1108, 1081 HZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Yoba for Life Foundation, Hunzestraat 133-A, 1079 WB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Department of Nursing, Muni University, P.O. Box 725 Arua, Uganda
Department of Food Technology and Nutrition, School of Food Technology Nutrition and Bioengineering, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062 Kampala, Uganda
Food and Agriculture Division, Standards Department, Uganda National Bureau of Standards, P.O. Box 6329 Kampala, Uganda
Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Product Development Directorate, Uganda Industrial Research Institute, P.O. Box 7086 Kampala, Uganda
TNO, Microbiology and Systems Biology, Utrechtseweg 48, 3704 HE Zeist, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 29 December 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2019 / Published: 25 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Fermentation)
PDF [992 KB, uploaded 25 January 2019]
  |     |  


Fermentation of food products can be used for the delivery of probiotic bacteria and means of food detoxification, provided that probiotics are able to grow, and toxins are reduced in raw materials with minimal effects on consumer acceptability. This study evaluated probiotic enrichment and detoxification of kwete, a commonly consumed traditional fermented cereal beverage in Uganda, by the use of starter culture with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba 2012 and Streptococcus thermophilus C106. Probiotic kwete was produced by fermenting a suspension of ground maize grain at 30 °C for a period of 24 h, leading to a decrease of the pH value to ≤ 4.0 and increase in titratable acidity of at least 0.2% (w/v). Probiotic kwete was acceptable to the consumers with a score of ≥6 on a 9-point hedonic scale. The products were stable over a month’s study period with a mean pH of 3.9, titratable acidity of 0.6% (w/v), and Lactobacillus rhamnosus counts >108 cfu g−1. HPLC analysis of aflatoxins of the water-soluble fraction of kwete indicated that fermentation led to an over 1000-fold reduction of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 spiked in the raw ingredients. In vitro fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed binding of aflatoxin B1 to Lactobacillus rhamnosus with an efficiency of 83.5%. This study shows that fermentation is a means to enrich with probiotics and reduce widely occurring aflatoxin contamination of maize products that are consumed as staple foods in sub-Saharan Africa. View Full-Text
Keywords: fermented cereal beverage; kwete; maize; probiotics; Lactobacillus rhamnosus; aflatoxins; binding fermented cereal beverage; kwete; maize; probiotics; Lactobacillus rhamnosus; aflatoxins; binding

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wacoo, A.P.; Mukisa, I.M.; Meeme, R.; Byakika, S.; Wendiro, D.; Sybesma, W.; Kort, R. Probiotic Enrichment and Reduction of Aflatoxins in a Traditional African Maize-Based Fermented Food. Nutrients 2019, 11, 265.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top