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Content of n-3 LC-PUFA in Breast Milk Four Months Postpartum is Associated with Infancy Blood Pressure in Boys and Infancy Blood Lipid Profile in Girls

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Strategic Business Unit Pediatric, Arla Foods Ingredients Group P/S, DK-8260 Viby J, Denmark
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Hans Christian Andersen Children’s Hospital, Odense University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark
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Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark
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Odense Patient data Explorative Network (OPEN), Odense University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark
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Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Public Health Epidemiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, NL-3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands
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Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark
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Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Odense University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark
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Department of Kinesiology, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
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Danish Centre for Health Economics (DaCHE), Department of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark
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Healthcare Outcome Research Centre, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin D02 YN77, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020235
Received: 21 November 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
Blood pressure (BP) and blood lipid profile (BLP) have been shown to track from childhood into adulthood, and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) in breast milk have been suggested as mediators of the beneficial long-term effect of breastfeeding on BP and BLP. We aimed to investigate associations between n-3 LC-PUFA content in breast milk at 4 months postpartum and offspring BP and BLP in early life. BP and BLP were measured at 4, 18, and 36 months. Statistical analyses were sex-stratified and adjusted for gestational age, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), and maternal educational level. Based on 336 mother-child dyads, high n-3 LC-PUFA in breast milk was inversely associated with systolic and diastolic BP in boys at 4 months (β = −20.0 (95% CI = −33.4, −6.7), p = 0.004 and β = −10.2 (95% CI = −19.8, −0.5), p = 0.039, respectively); inversely associated with HDL cholesterol, and directly associated with triglyceride in girls at 4 months (β = −0.7 (95% CI = −1.1, −0.3), p = 0.001 and β = 3.1 (95% CI = 1.0, 5.2), p = 0.005, respectively). Associations observed at the later time points were non-significant. Furthermore, we observed sex-specific changes over time in both size and direction of the associations. Our results indicate that early intake of n-3 LC-PUFA can affect early development in cardiometabolic factors such as BP and BLP in a sex-specific manner. Follow-up and further investigation in later childhood is planned. View Full-Text
Keywords: cohort study; cardiovascular health; omega-3; fatty acids; human milk; milk composition; cholesterol; triglyceride cohort study; cardiovascular health; omega-3; fatty acids; human milk; milk composition; cholesterol; triglyceride
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Bruun, S.; van Rossem, L.; Lauritzen, L.; Husby, S.; Neergaard Jacobsen, L.; Michaelsen, K.F.; Boysen Sandberg, M.; Stark, K.D.; Sørensen, J.; Zachariassen, G. Content of n-3 LC-PUFA in Breast Milk Four Months Postpartum is Associated with Infancy Blood Pressure in Boys and Infancy Blood Lipid Profile in Girls. Nutrients 2019, 11, 235.

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