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Open AccessArticle

Sourdough Fermented Breads are More Digestible than Those Started with Baker’s Yeast Alone: An In Vivo Challenge Dissecting Distinct Gastrointestinal Responses

1
Department of Soil, Plant and Food Science, University of Bari Aldo Moro, 70126 Bari, Italy
2
Clinica Medica “A. Murri”, Department of Biomedical Sciences & Human Oncology, University of Bari Medical School, 70124 Bari, Italy
3
Puratos NV, 1702 Groot-Bijgaarden, Belgium
4
Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, 39100 Bolzano, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The two authors contributed equally.
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2954; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122954
Received: 9 September 2019 / Revised: 7 November 2019 / Accepted: 26 November 2019 / Published: 4 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Fermentation)
As a staple food, bread digestibility deserves a marked nutritional interest. Combining wide-spectrum characterization of breads, in vitro nutritional indices, and in vivo postprandial markers of gastrointestinal function, we aimed at comparing the digestibility of sourdough and baker’s yeast breads. Microbiological and biochemical data showed the representativeness of the baker´s yeast bread (BYB) and the two sourdough breads (SB and t-SB, mainly differing for the time of fermentation) manufactured at semi-industrial level. All in vitro nutritional indices had the highest scores for sourdough breads. Thirty-six healthy volunteers underwent an in vivo challenge in response to bread ingestion, while monitoring gallbladder, stomach, and oro-cecal motility. SB, made with moderate sourdough acidification, stimulated more appetite and induced lower satiety. t-SB, having the most intense acidic taste, induced the highest fullness perception in the shortest time. Gallbladder response did not differ among breads, while gastric emptying was faster with sourdough breads. Oro-cecal transit was prolonged for BYB and faster for sourdough breads, especially when made with traditional and long-time fermentation (t-SB), whose transit lasted ca. 20 min less than BYB. Differences in carbohydrate digestibility and absorption determined different post-prandial glycaemia responses. Sourdough breads had the lowest values. After ingesting sourdough breads, which had a concentration of total free amino acids markedly higher than that of BYB, the levels in blood plasma were maintained at constantly high levels for extended time. View Full-Text
Keywords: gallbladder emptying; hydrogen breath test; stomach emptying; orocecal transit time; test meal; ultrasonography gallbladder emptying; hydrogen breath test; stomach emptying; orocecal transit time; test meal; ultrasonography
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Rizzello, C.G.; Portincasa, P.; Montemurro, M.; Di Palo, D.M.; Lorusso, M.P.; De Angelis, M.; Bonfrate, L.; Genot, B.; Gobbetti, M. Sourdough Fermented Breads are More Digestible than Those Started with Baker’s Yeast Alone: An In Vivo Challenge Dissecting Distinct Gastrointestinal Responses. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2954.

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