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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication

The Role of Vitamin D and Omega-3 PUFAs in Islet Transplantation

1
Diabetes Research Institute (DRI) and Clinical Cell Transplant Program, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136, USA
2
Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome “Tor Vergata,” 00133 Rome, Italy
3
Diabetes Research Institute (DRI) and Cell Transplant Center, cGMP Cell Processing Facility, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136, USA
4
Diabetes and Islet Transplantation Unit, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services, IRCCS-ISMETT (Istituto Mediterraneo per i Trapianti e Terapie ad alta specializzazione), UPMC, 90127 Palermo, Italy
5
Diabetology Unit, Niguarda Hospital, 20162 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2937; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122937
Received: 27 October 2019 / Revised: 21 November 2019 / Accepted: 26 November 2019 / Published: 3 December 2019
Recurrence of autoimmunity and allograft rejection represent major challenges that impact the success of islet transplantation. Despite the remarkable improvements achieved in immunosuppression strategies after the publication of the Edmonton protocol, long-term data of intra-hepatic islet transplantation show a gradual decline in beta-cell function. Therefore, there is a growing interest in the investigation of novel, safe and effective anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory strategies able to promote long-term islet graft survival and notable improvements in clinical outcomes of islet transplant recipients. Vitamin D has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Pre-clinical studies investigating the use of vitamin D and its analogs (alone or in combination with immunosuppressive agents and/or other anti-inflammatory agents, such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) showed beneficial results in terms of islet graft survival and prevention of recurrence of autoimmunity/allograft rejection in animal models of syngeneic and allogeneic islet transplantation. Moreover, epidemiologic studies demonstrated that vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent after solid organ transplantation (e.g., heart, liver or kidney transplantation). However, studies that critically assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among islet transplant recipients have yet to be conducted. In addition, prospective studies aimed to address the safety and efficacy of vitamin D supplementation as an adjuvant immunomodulatory strategy in islet transplant recipients are lacking and are therefore awaited in the future.
Keywords: type 1 diabetes; T1D; islet transplantation; NOD mice; graft survival; immune tolerance; autoimmunity recurrence; allograft rejection; vitamin D; omega-3 PUFAs type 1 diabetes; T1D; islet transplantation; NOD mice; graft survival; immune tolerance; autoimmunity recurrence; allograft rejection; vitamin D; omega-3 PUFAs
MDPI and ACS Style

Infante, M.; Ricordi, C.; Padilla, N.; Alvarez, A.; Linetsky, E.; Lanzoni, G.; Mattina, A.; Bertuzzi, F.; Fabbri, A.; Baidal, D.; Alejandro, R. The Role of Vitamin D and Omega-3 PUFAs in Islet Transplantation. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2937.

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