Next Article in Journal
Patient Involvement in Education of Nutrition and Dietetics Students: A Systematic Review
Previous Article in Journal
Calorie Restriction in Adulthood Reduces Hepatic Disorders Induced by Transient Postnatal Overfeeding in Mice
Open AccessArticle

Daily Ingestion of Eggplant Powder Improves Blood Pressure and Psychological State in Stressed Individuals: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study

1
Department of Medical Management and Informatics, Hokkaido Information University, Hokkaido 069-8585, Japan
2
Department of Agriculture, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shinshu University, Nagano 399-4598, Japan
3
Department of Science and Technology, Graduate School of Medicine, Science and Technology, Shinshu University, Nagano 399-4598, Japan
4
Future Business Search Team, Planning Department, R & D Division, ADEKA co., Tokyo 116-8554, Japan
5
Institute of Agriculture, Academic Assembly, Shinshu University, Nagano 399-4598, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2797; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112797
Received: 15 August 2019 / Revised: 17 October 2019 / Accepted: 17 October 2019 / Published: 16 November 2019
Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is a globally popular vegetable and its significant health effect has not been reported in randomized controlled trials. Recently, we reported that eggplant was rich in choline esters, including acetylcholine (ACh), and had an antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Here, we evaluated the effects of a continuous intake of eggplant powder on blood pressure (BP), stress, and psychological state (PS) in 100 stressed participants with normal-high BP or grade 1 hypertension in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group comparative study. The participants were randomly assigned to the eggplant or placebo group. Participants in the eggplant group ingested capsules containing eggplant powder (1.2 g/day; 2.3 mg of ACh/day) for 12 weeks, whereas participants in the placebo group ingested placebo capsules. The primary outcome assessed was hospital BP. Secondary outcomes were stress and PS. Eggplant powder intake significantly decreased the hospital diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at week 8 overall and in the normal-high BP group, and the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and DBP at week 12 overall and in the grade 1 hypertension group, compared to those of the placebo group. It also improved negative PSs at week 8 or 12 in the normal-high BP group. This is the first evidence of the BP- and PS-improving effects of eggplant intake in humans. The functional substance responsible for the effects was estimated to be eggplant-derived choline ester, namely ACh. View Full-Text
Keywords: acetylcholine; eggplant; blood pressure; psychological state; randomized controlled study acetylcholine; eggplant; blood pressure; psychological state; randomized controlled study
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Nishimura, M.; Suzuki, M.; Takahashi, R.; Yamaguchi, S.; Tsubaki, K.; Fujita, T.; Nishihira, J.; Nakamura, K. Daily Ingestion of Eggplant Powder Improves Blood Pressure and Psychological State in Stressed Individuals: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2797.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop