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Review

Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Immunomodulatory Properties of Essential Oils: A Systematic Review

1
Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology “José Mataix”, Center of Biomedical Research, University of Granada, Avda. del Conocimiento s/n. 18016 Armilla, Granada, Spain
2
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II, School of Pharmacy, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
3
ibs.GRANADA, Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Granada, 18014 Granada, Spain
4
CIBEROBN (CIBER Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2786; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112786
Received: 31 October 2019 / Revised: 6 November 2019 / Accepted: 12 November 2019 / Published: 15 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Immunonutrient in Human Health and Disease)
Essential oils (EOs) are a mixture of natural, volatile, and aromatic compounds obtained from plants. In recent years, several studies have shown that some of their benefits can be attributed to their antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and also immunomodulatory properties. Therefore, EOs have been proposed as a natural alternative to antibiotics or for use in combination with antibiotics against multidrug-resistant bacteria in animal feed and food preservation. Most of the results come from in vitro and in vivo studies; however, very little is known about their use in clinical studies. A systematic and comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase®, and Scopus from December 2014 to April 2019 using different combinations of the following keywords: essential oils, volatile oils, antimicrobial, antioxidant, immunomodulation, and microbiota. Some EOs have demonstrated their efficacy against several foodborne pathogens in vitro and model food systems; namely, the inhibition of S. aureus, V. cholerae, and C. albicans has been observed. EOs have shown remarkable antioxidant activities when used at a dose range of 0.01 to 10 mg/mL in cell models, which can be attributed to their richness in phenolic compounds. Moreover, selected EOs exhibit immunomodulatory activities that have been mainly attributed to their ability to modify the secretion of cytokines. View Full-Text
Keywords: essential oils; volatile oils; antimicrobial; antioxidant; immunomodulatory; food preservation; biofilm essential oils; volatile oils; antimicrobial; antioxidant; immunomodulatory; food preservation; biofilm
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MDPI and ACS Style

Valdivieso-Ugarte, M.; Gomez-Llorente, C.; Plaza-Díaz, J.; Gil, Á. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Immunomodulatory Properties of Essential Oils: A Systematic Review. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2786. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112786

AMA Style

Valdivieso-Ugarte M, Gomez-Llorente C, Plaza-Díaz J, Gil Á. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Immunomodulatory Properties of Essential Oils: A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2019; 11(11):2786. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112786

Chicago/Turabian Style

Valdivieso-Ugarte, Magdalena, Carolina Gomez-Llorente, Julio Plaza-Díaz, and Ángel Gil. 2019. "Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Immunomodulatory Properties of Essential Oils: A Systematic Review" Nutrients 11, no. 11: 2786. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112786

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