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Open AccessArticle

Associations of Circadian Eating Pattern and Diet Quality with Substantial Postpartum Weight Retention

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Department of Reproductive Medicine, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 229899, Singapore
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Duke-NUS Medical School, 8 College Road, Singapore 169857, Singapore
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Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), 30 Medical Drive, Singapore 117609, Singapore
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Programme in Health Services & Systems Research and Center for Quantitative Medicine, Duke-NUS Medical School, 8 College Road, Singapore 169857, Singapore
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Tampere Center for Child Health Research, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, Arvo Ylpönkatu 34 (ARVO B235), 33014 Tampere, Finland
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Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, National University Health System, 1E Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119228, Singapore
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Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, College of Nursing and Health Science, Flinders University, Sturt Rd, Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia
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Department of Dietetics, National University Hospital, National University Health System, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Rd, Singapore 119074, Singapore
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Medical Research Council Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
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National Institute for Health Research Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University of Southampton and University Hospital Southampton National Health Service Foundation Trust, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
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Department of Paediatrics, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, National University Health System, 1E Kent Ridge Road, NUHS Tower Block Level 12, Singapore 119228, Singapore
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Khoo Teck Puat-National University Children’s Medical Institute, National University Hospital, National University Health System, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119074, Singapore
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Department of Maternal Fetal Medicine, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 229899, Singapore
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Department of Paediatrics, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 229899, Singapore
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Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, 12 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117549, Singapore
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Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, 11 Mandalay Road, Singapore 308232, Singapore
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
M.F.-F.C. and F.Y. are joint senior authors.
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2686; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112686
Received: 7 October 2019 / Revised: 29 October 2019 / Accepted: 4 November 2019 / Published: 6 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Circadian Misalignment, Nutrition, and Cardiometabolic Health)
Besides food quantity and quality, food timing and frequency may contribute to weight regulation. It is unclear if these factors during pregnancy can influence maternal weight retention after childbirth. We thus aimed to examine the associations of maternal circadian eating pattern and diet quality in pregnancy with substantial postpartum weight retention (PPWR) at 18 months in an Asian cohort. We assessed circadian eating pattern and diet quality of 687 women using 24-h dietary recalls at 26–28 weeks’ gestation. We calculated PPWR by subtracting maternal weight in the first trimester from weight at 18-month postpartum and defined substantial PPWR as ≥5 kg weight retention. Multivariable binary logistic regression was performed. Overall, 16% of women had substantial PPWR. After the confounders adjustment, night eating, defined by greater night-time caloric intake (odds ratio 1.95; 95% confidence interval 1.05, 3.62), and lower diet quality, classified by median score of the Healthy Eating Index (1.91; 1.17, 3.10), were independently associated with higher odds of substantial PPWR. No associations with substantial PPWR were observed for night fasting duration and number of eating episodes. In conclusion, alignment of eating time with day–night cycles and diet quality during pregnancy may play a role in PPWR, with possible implications for long-term obesity risk. View Full-Text
Keywords: circadian eating; diet quality; eating episodes; fasting; meal frequency; pregnancy diet; postpartum weight circadian eating; diet quality; eating episodes; fasting; meal frequency; pregnancy diet; postpartum weight
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MDPI and ACS Style

Loy, S.L.; Cheung, Y.B.; Colega, M.T.; Chia, A.; Han, C.Y.; Godfrey, K.M.; Chong, Y.-S.; Shek, L.P.-C.; Tan, K.H.; Lek, N.; Chan, J.K.Y.; Chong, M.F.-F.; Yap, F. Associations of Circadian Eating Pattern and Diet Quality with Substantial Postpartum Weight Retention. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2686. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112686

AMA Style

Loy SL, Cheung YB, Colega MT, Chia A, Han CY, Godfrey KM, Chong Y-S, Shek LP-C, Tan KH, Lek N, Chan JKY, Chong MF-F, Yap F. Associations of Circadian Eating Pattern and Diet Quality with Substantial Postpartum Weight Retention. Nutrients. 2019; 11(11):2686. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112686

Chicago/Turabian Style

Loy, See L.; Cheung, Yin B.; Colega, Marjorelee T.; Chia, Airu; Han, Chad Y.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Chong, Yap-Seng; Shek, Lynette P.-C.; Tan, Kok H.; Lek, Ngee; Chan, Jerry K.Y.; Chong, Mary F.-F.; Yap, Fabian. 2019. "Associations of Circadian Eating Pattern and Diet Quality with Substantial Postpartum Weight Retention" Nutrients 11, no. 11: 2686. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112686

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