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Open AccessArticle

Prevalence of Carnitine Deficiency and Decreased Carnitine Levels in Patients on Peritoneal Dialysis

Division of Nephrology, Hypertension and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi Kami-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610, Japan
Department of Nephrology, Keiai Hospital, 3-10-6, Mukaihara, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0036, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2645;
Received: 27 September 2019 / Revised: 26 October 2019 / Accepted: 29 October 2019 / Published: 4 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD))
Background: Carnitine deficiency is common in patients on dialysis. Serum free carnitine concentration is significantly lower in patients on hemodialysis (HD) than in healthy individuals. However, there are few reports on serum free carnitine concentration in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). Methods: We examined serum concentrations of total, free, and acylcarnitine and the acylcarnitine/free carnitine ratio in 34 PD and 34 age-, sex-, and dialysis duration-matched HD patients. We investigated the prevalence of carnitine deficiency and clinical factors associated with carnitine deficiency in the PD group. Results: Prevalence of carnitine deficiency was 8.8% in the PD group and 17.7% in the HD group (p = 0.283). High risk of carnitine deficiency was found in 73.5% of the PD group and 76.4% of the HD group (p = 0.604). Carnitine insufficiency was found in 82.3% of the PD group and 88.2% of HD group (p = 0.733). Multivariate analysis revealed that duration of dialysis and age were independent predictors of serum free carnitine level in the PD group. Conclusions: The prevalence of carnitine deficiency, high risk of carnitine deficiency, and carnitine insufficiency in PD patients was 8.8%, 73.5%, and 82.3%, respectively. These rates were comparable to those in patients on HD. View Full-Text
Keywords: carnitine; peritoneal dialysis; hemodialysis carnitine; peritoneal dialysis; hemodialysis
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Shimizu, S.; Takashima, H.; Tei, R.; Furukawa, T.; Okamura, M.; Kitai, M.; Nagura, C.; Maruyama, T.; Higuchi, T.; Abe, M. Prevalence of Carnitine Deficiency and Decreased Carnitine Levels in Patients on Peritoneal Dialysis. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2645.

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