From the Table to the Tumor: The Role of Mediterranean and Western Dietary Patterns in Shifting Microbial-Mediated Signaling to Impact Breast Cancer Risk
Department of Cancer Biology Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA
Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA
Department of Surgery, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2565; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112565
Received: 15 September 2019 / Revised: 14 October 2019 / Accepted: 15 October 2019 / Published: 24 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cancer: From Prevention to Survivorship)
Diet is a modifiable component of lifestyle that could influence breast cancer development. The Mediterranean dietary pattern is considered one of the healthiest of all dietary patterns. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet protects against diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Reported consumption of a Mediterranean diet pattern was associated with lower breast cancer risk for women with all subtypes of breast cancer, and a Western diet pattern was associated with greater risk. In this review, we contrast the available epidemiological breast cancer data, comparing the impact of consuming a Mediterranean diet to the Western diet. Furthermore, we will review the preclinical data highlighting the anticancer molecular mechanism of Mediterranean diet consumption in both cancer prevention and therapeutic outcomes. Diet composition is a major constituent shaping the gut microbiome. Distinct patterns of gut microbiota composition are associated with the habitual consumption of animal fats, high-fiber diets, and vegetable-based diets. We will review the impact of Mediterranean diet on the gut microbiome and inflammation. Outside of the gut, we recently demonstrated that Mediterranean diet consumption led to distinct microbiota shifts in the mammary gland tissue, suggesting possible anticancer effects by diet on breast-specific microbiome. Taken together, these data support the anti-breast-cancer impact of Mediterranean diet consumption.