Next Article in Journal
Relationship between 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D and Body Composition in Middle-Aged Sedentary Adults: The FIT-AGEING Study
Previous Article in Journal
From the Table to the Tumor: The Role of Mediterranean and Western Dietary Patterns in Shifting Microbial-Mediated Signaling to Impact Breast Cancer Risk
Open AccessArticle

Metabolic Cytokines at Fasting and During Macronutrient Challenges: Influence of Obesity, Female Androgen Excess and Sex

Diabetes, Obesity and Human Reproduction Research Group, Department of Endocrinology & Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal & Universidad de Alcalá & Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria IRYCIS & Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas CIBERDEM, Madrid 28034, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2566; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112566
Received: 12 July 2019 / Revised: 11 September 2019 / Accepted: 15 September 2019 / Published: 24 October 2019
Scope: Cytokines have pleiotropic functions within the organism and their levels may be influenced by obesity, visceral adiposity and sex hormones. Diet composition may also affect their systemic concentrations during fasting and in the postprandial period. Hence, we studied the influence of sex steroids and obesity on the circulating levels of a panel of metabolic cytokines in the fasting state and after single macronutrient challenges. Methods: On alternate days we submitted 17 women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) (9 non-obese, 8 obese), 17 non-hyperandrogenic control women (9 non-obese, 8 obese) and 19 control men (10 non-obese, 9 obese) to isocaloric oral glucose, lipid and protein loads. Serum levels of omentin-1, vaspin, lipocalin-2, adipsin, PAI-1, chemerin, FGF-21 and FGF-23 were determined by Luminex multiplex technology. Results: During fasting, obese patients presented higher levels of PAI-1, chemerin and adipsin but decreased FGF-23 and omentin-1 compared with non-obese subjects. Vaspin showed sexual dimorphism with lower levels in men than women with PCOS and female controls. Following macronutrient ingestion, most metabolic cytokines presented a similar physiological response consisting of a decrease in circulating concentrations, which was inversely associated with the fasting levels of these molecules. Protein intake caused the major postprandial decrease whereas glucose did not significantly reduce PAI-1, FGF-23 and vaspin, and even increased FGF-21. Regardless of the macronutrient administered, vaspin levels showed a larger reduction in non-obese individuals while the decrease in PAI-1 was particularly noticeable in the obese subgroup. The postprandial reductions of omentin-1 and FGF-23 after glucose and protein loads were influenced by obesity. No major differences were found between patients with PCOS and male and female controls. Conclusions: Obesity, but not PCOS or sex, markedly influences metabolic cytokine levels at fasting and after macronutrient ingestion. The observed postprandial decrease in their circulating concentrations might represent a physiological compensatory mechanism against food-induced inflammation and oxidative stress. This mechanism is altered by obesity and is differently modulated by macronutrients, suggesting a larger contribution of glucose to stressful postprandial responses. View Full-Text
Keywords: adipokines; PCOS; sex hormones; adiposity; glucose; lipids; proteins; oral loads adipokines; PCOS; sex hormones; adiposity; glucose; lipids; proteins; oral loads
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Martínez-García, M.Á.; Moncayo, S.; Insenser, M.; Álvarez-Blasco, F.; Luque-Ramírez, M.; Escobar-Morreale, H.F. Metabolic Cytokines at Fasting and During Macronutrient Challenges: Influence of Obesity, Female Androgen Excess and Sex. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2566. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112566

AMA Style

Martínez-García MÁ, Moncayo S, Insenser M, Álvarez-Blasco F, Luque-Ramírez M, Escobar-Morreale HF. Metabolic Cytokines at Fasting and During Macronutrient Challenges: Influence of Obesity, Female Androgen Excess and Sex. Nutrients. 2019; 11(11):2566. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112566

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martínez-García, M. Á.; Moncayo, Samuel; Insenser, María; Álvarez-Blasco, Francisco; Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F. 2019. "Metabolic Cytokines at Fasting and During Macronutrient Challenges: Influence of Obesity, Female Androgen Excess and Sex" Nutrients 11, no. 11: 2566. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112566

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop