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Differential Effects of Typical Korean Versus American-Style Diets on Gut Microbial Composition and Metabolic Profile in Healthy Overweight Koreans: A Randomized Crossover Trial

1
Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Korea
2
Research Group of Healthcare, Research division of Food Functionality, Korea Food Research Institute, 245 Nongsaengmyeong-ro, Iseo-myeon, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 55365, Korea
3
Integrated Metabolomics Research Group, Western Seoul Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, 150 Bugahyeon-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03759, Korea
4
Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066 Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 16419, Korea
5
Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Korea
6
Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Korea
7
Department of Agro-food Resources, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Rural Development Administration, 166 Nongsaengmyeong-ro, Iseo-myeon, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 55365, Korea
8
Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, 52 Ewhayeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03760, Korea
9
Research Institution of Human Ecology, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to this work.
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2450; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102450
Received: 23 August 2019 / Revised: 18 September 2019 / Accepted: 10 October 2019 / Published: 14 October 2019
The Westernized diet has been associated with the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases, whereas a Korean diet has been reported to exert beneficial effects on health in several studies. However, the effects of Western and Korean diets on the gut microbiome and host metabolome are unclear. To examine the diet-specific effects on microbiome and metabolome, we conducted a randomized crossover clinical trial of typical Korean diet (TKD), typical American diet (TAD), and recommended American diet (RAD). The trial involved a 4-week consumption of an experimental diet followed by a 2-week interval before diet crossover. 16S rRNA sequencing analysis identified 16, 10, and 14 differential bacteria genera specific to TKD, RAD, and TAD, respectively. The Firmucutes-Bacteroidetes ratio was increased by TKD. Nuclear magnetic resonance metabolome profiling revealed that TKD enriched branched chain amino acid metabolism, whereas ketone body metabolism was evident in RAD and TAD. Microbiome and metabolome responses to the experimental diets varied with individual enterotypes. These findings provide evidence that the gut microbiome and host metabolome rapidly respond to different cultural diets. The findings will inform clarification of the diet-related communication networks of the gut microbiome and host metabolome in humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: Korean diet; American diet; gut microbiota; metabolomics; enterotype; randomized crossover trial Korean diet; American diet; gut microbiota; metabolomics; enterotype; randomized crossover trial
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Shin, J.-H.; Jung, S.; Kim, S.-A.; Kang, M.-S.; Kim, M.-S.; Joung, H.; Hwang, G.-S.; Shin, D.-M. Differential Effects of Typical Korean Versus American-Style Diets on Gut Microbial Composition and Metabolic Profile in Healthy Overweight Koreans: A Randomized Crossover Trial. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2450.

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