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Sodium Intake from Foods Exceeds Recommended Limits in the Spanish Population: The ANIBES Study

Departamento de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y de la Salud, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad San Pablo-CEU, CEU Universities, Urbanización Montepríncipe, 28925 Alcorcón, Madrid, Spain
CIBERESP (Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health), 28029 Madrid, Spain
National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Avda. Monforte de Lemos, 5, 28029 Madrid, Spain
Department of Food Sciences and Physiology, University of Navarra, Pamplona, 31009 Navarra, Spain
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), 48940 Leioa, Vizcaya, Spain
CIBEROBN, Biomedical Research Networking Center for Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Carlos III Health Institute, 28029 Madrid, Spain
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II and Institute of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Granada, 18010 Granada, Spain
ImFINE Research Group, Department of Health and Human Performance, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Madrid Complutense University, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35016 Las Palmas, Spain
Service of Preventive Medicine, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Insular Materno Infantil (CHUIMI), Canary Health Service, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35016 Las Palmas, Spain
Spanish Nutrition Foundation (FEN), 28010 Madrid, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2451;
Received: 18 August 2019 / Revised: 20 September 2019 / Accepted: 3 October 2019 / Published: 14 October 2019
Excessive sodium consumption is associated with adverse health effects. An elevated dietary intake of salt (sodium chloride) has been related to high blood pressure or hypertension, a major but modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, as well as to other ill health conditions. In the present work, our aim was to describe the contribution of foods to sodium consumption within the Spanish population in a representative sample from the “anthropometric data, macronutrients and micronutrients intake, practice of physical activity, socioeconomic data and lifestyles in Spain” (ANIBES) study (9–75 years), to identify high consumer groups, as well as the major food groups that contribute to sodium intake in the Spanish diet. Intakes were assessed by 3-day food records collected on a tablet device. Sodium intakes across the ANIBES study population exceeded recommendations, as total intakes reached 2025 ± 805 mg of sodium per day, that is approximately 5.06 g/day of salt (excluding discretionary salt, added at the table or during cooking). Sodium intakes were higher in males than in females and within the youngest groups. Main dietary sources of sodium were meat and meat products (27%), cereals and grains (26%), milk and dairy products (14%) and ready-to-eat meals (13%). Given the established health benefits of dietary salt reduction, it would be advisable to continue and even improve the current national initiatives of awareness and educational campaigns and particularly food reformulation to decrease overall salt intakes across the Spanish population. View Full-Text
Keywords: sodium; salt; consumption; intakes; food groups; Spain; ANIBES sodium; salt; consumption; intakes; food groups; Spain; ANIBES
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Partearroyo, T.; Samaniego-Vaesken, M.L.; Ruiz, E.; Aranceta-Bartrina, J.; Gil, Á.; González-Gross, M.; Ortega, R.M.; Serra-Majem, L.; Varela-Moreiras, G. Sodium Intake from Foods Exceeds Recommended Limits in the Spanish Population: The ANIBES Study. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2451.

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