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The Gut Microbiota in Celiac Disease and probiotics
Open AccessReview

Celiac Disease and the Microbiome

1
Pediatric Gastroenterology and Liver Unit, Department of “Maternal-and-Child Health” and Urology, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy
2
European Biomedical Research Institute of Salerno, 84125 Salerno, Italy
3
Center for Celiac Research and Treatment, Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Boston, MA 02114, USA
4
Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Boston, MA 02114, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2403; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102403
Received: 17 August 2019 / Revised: 26 September 2019 / Accepted: 27 September 2019 / Published: 8 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Diet and Celiac Disease)
Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that changes in both the composition and function of the intestinal microbiome are associated with a number of chronic inflammatory diseases including celiac disease (CD). One of the major advances in the field of microbiome studies over the last few decades has been the development of culture-independent approaches to identify and quantify the components of the human microbiota. The study of nucleic acids DNA and RNA found in feces or other biological samples bypasses the need for tissue cultures and also allows the characterization of non-cultivable microbes. Current evidence on the composition of the intestinal microbiome and its role as a causative trigger for CD is highly heterogeneous and sometimes contradictory. This review is aimed at summarizing both pre-clinical (basic science data) and clinical (cross-sectional and prospective studies) evidence addressing the relationship between the intestinal microbiome and CD.
Keywords: celiac disease; microbiome; microbiota; environmental factors; at-risk infants celiac disease; microbiome; microbiota; environmental factors; at-risk infants
MDPI and ACS Style

Valitutti, F.; Cucchiara, S.; Fasano, A. Celiac Disease and the Microbiome. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2403.

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