Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that changes in both the composition and function of the intestinal microbiome are associated with a number of chronic inflammatory diseases including celiac disease (CD). One of the major advances in the field of microbiome studies over the last few decades has been the development of culture-independent approaches to identify and quantify the components of the human microbiota. The study of nucleic acids DNA and RNA found in feces or other biological samples bypasses the need for tissue cultures and also allows the characterization of non-cultivable microbes. Current evidence on the composition of the intestinal microbiome and its role as a causative trigger for CD is highly heterogeneous and sometimes contradictory. This review is aimed at summarizing both pre-clinical (basic science data) and clinical (cross-sectional and prospective studies) evidence addressing the relationship between the intestinal microbiome and CD.
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