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The Impact of Obesity on the Association between Vitamin D Deficiency and Cardiovascular Disease

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Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Aghia Sophia Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece
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School of Medicine, European University Cyprus, 2404 Nicosia, Cyprus
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Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, School of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
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Division of Cardiology, Onassis Cardiac Surgery Centre, 17674 Athens, Greece
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Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece
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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Unit of Reproductive Endocrinology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 56403 Thessaloniki, Greece
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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11526 Athens, Greece
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Department of Cardiology, Hippokration Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11526 Athens, Greece
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2458; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102458
Received: 5 September 2019 / Revised: 7 October 2019 / Accepted: 9 October 2019 / Published: 14 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Obesity)
The aim of this article is to review the literature regarding the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its modification in the presence of obesity. Despite the strong association between vitamin D status and cardiovascular outcomes, vitamin D supplementation trials in the general population have failed to decrease the incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. A comprehensive study of the published literature and a comparison with experimental data lead to the conclusion that obesity, due to its high prevalence and strong association with both vitamin D deficiency and CVD, may act as a critical confounder, which is responsible for the different results on this association. Adoption of a vitamin D preventive supplementation strategy for CVD is unlikely to yield any benefit to the general population. However, it might be particularly useful in obese adults with increased risk for CVD. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; obesity; cardiovascular disease; atherosclerosis vitamin D; obesity; cardiovascular disease; atherosclerosis
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Paschou, S.A.; Kosmopoulos, M.; Nikas, I.P.; Spartalis, M.; Kassi, E.; Goulis, D.G.; Lambrinoudaki, I.; Siasos, G. The Impact of Obesity on the Association between Vitamin D Deficiency and Cardiovascular Disease. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2458.

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