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Correction published on 8 July 2019, see Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1543.

Satiating Effect of High Protein Diets on Resistance-Trained Individuals in Energy Deficit

School of Psychology and Sport Science, Cambridge Centre for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, East Road, Cambridge CB1 1PT, UK
Department of Biochemistry, Kings College, University of Cambridge, Kings Parade, Cambridge CB2 1ST, UK
International Scientific Research Foundation for Fitness and Nutrition, 1073 LC Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Department of Surgery, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 56;
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 14 December 2018 / Accepted: 26 December 2018 / Published: 28 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Support for Athletic Performance)
Short-term energy deficit strategies are practiced by weight class and physique athletes, often involving high protein intakes to maximize satiety and maintain lean mass despite a paucity of research. This study compared the satiating effect of two protein diets on resistance-trained individuals during short-term energy deficit. Following ethical approval, 16 participants (age: 28 ± 2 years; height: 1.72 ± 0.03 m; body-mass: 88.83 ± 5.54 kg; body-fat: 21.85 ± 1.82%) were randomly assigned to 7-days moderate (PROMOD: 1.8 g·kg−1·d−1) or high protein (PROHIGH: 2.9 g·kg−1·d−1) matched calorie-deficit diets in a cross-over design. Daily satiety responses were recorded throughout interventions. Pre-post diet, plasma ghrelin and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), and satiety ratings were assessed in response to a protein-rich meal. Only perceived satisfaction was significantly greater following PROHIGH (67.29 ± 4.28 v 58.96 ± 4.51 mm, p = 0.04). Perceived cravings increased following PROMOD only (46.25 ± 4.96 to 57.60 ± 4.41 mm, p = 0.01). Absolute ghrelin concentration significantly reduced post-meal following PROMOD (972.8 ± 130.4 to 613.6 ± 114.3 pg·mL−1; p = 0.003), remaining lower than PROHIGH at 2 h (−0.40 ± 0.06 v −0.26 ± 0.06 pg·mL−1 normalized relative change; p = 0.015). Absolute PYY concentration increased to a similar extent post-meal (PROMOD: 84.9 ± 8.9 to 147.1 ± 11.9 pg·mL−1, PROHIGH: 100.6 ± 9.5 to 143.3 ± 12.0 pg·mL−1; p < 0.001), but expressed as relative change difference was significantly greater for PROMOD at 2 h (+0.39 ± 0.20 pg·mL−1 v −0.28 ± 0.12 pg·mL−1; p = 0.001). Perceived hunger, fullness and satisfaction post-meal were comparable between diets (p > 0.05). However, desire to eat remained significantly blunted for PROMOD (p = 0.048). PROHIGH does not confer additional satiating benefits in resistance-trained individuals during short-term energy deficit. Ghrelin and PYY responses to a test-meal support the contention that satiety was maintained following PROMOD, although athletes experiencing negative symptoms (i.e., cravings) may benefit from protein-rich meals as opposed to over-consumption of protein. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary protein; satiety; ghrelin; peptide YY; resistance training dietary protein; satiety; ghrelin; peptide YY; resistance training
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MDPI and ACS Style

Roberts, J.; Zinchenko, A.; Mahbubani, K.T.; Johnstone, J.; Smith, L.; Merzbach, V.; Blacutt, M.; Banderas, O.; Villasenor, L.; Vårvik, F.T.; Henselmans, M. Satiating Effect of High Protein Diets on Resistance-Trained Individuals in Energy Deficit. Nutrients 2019, 11, 56.

AMA Style

Roberts J, Zinchenko A, Mahbubani KT, Johnstone J, Smith L, Merzbach V, Blacutt M, Banderas O, Villasenor L, Vårvik FT, Henselmans M. Satiating Effect of High Protein Diets on Resistance-Trained Individuals in Energy Deficit. Nutrients. 2019; 11(1):56.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Roberts, Justin, Anastasia Zinchenko, Krishnaa T. Mahbubani, James Johnstone, Lee Smith, Viviane Merzbach, Miguel Blacutt, Oscar Banderas, Luis Villasenor, Fredrik T. Vårvik, and Menno Henselmans. 2019. "Satiating Effect of High Protein Diets on Resistance-Trained Individuals in Energy Deficit" Nutrients 11, no. 1: 56.

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