Satiating Effect of High Protein Diets on Resistance-Trained Individuals in Energy Deficit
AbstractShort-term energy deficit strategies are practiced by weight class and physique athletes, often involving high protein intakes to maximize satiety and maintain lean mass despite a paucity of research. This study compared the satiating effect of two protein diets on resistance-trained individuals during short-term energy deficit. Following ethical approval, 16 participants (age: 28 ± 2 years; height: 1.72 ± 0.03 m; body-mass: 88.83 ± 5.54 kg; body-fat: 21.85 ± 1.82%) were randomly assigned to 7-days moderate (PROMOD: 1.8 g·kg−1·d−1) or high protein (PROHIGH: 2.9 g·kg−1·d−1) matched calorie-deficit diets in a cross-over design. Daily satiety responses were recorded throughout interventions. Pre-post diet, plasma ghrelin and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), and satiety ratings were assessed in response to a protein-rich meal. Only perceived satisfaction was significantly greater following PROHIGH (67.29 ± 4.28 v 58.96 ± 4.51 mm, p = 0.04). Perceived cravings increased following PROMOD only (46.25 ± 4.96 to 57.60 ± 4.41 mm, p = 0.01). Absolute ghrelin concentration significantly reduced post-meal following PROMOD (972.8 ± 130.4 to 613.6 ± 114.3 pg·mL−1; p = 0.003), remaining lower than PROHIGH at 2 h (−0.40 ± 0.06 v −0.26 ± 0.06 pg·mL−1 normalized relative change; p = 0.015). Absolute PYY concentration increased to a similar extent post-meal (PROMOD: 84.9 ± 8.9 to 147.1 ± 11.9 pg·mL−1, PROHIGH: 100.6 ± 9.5 to 143.3 ± 12.0 pg·mL−1; p < 0.001), but expressed as relative change difference was significantly greater for PROMOD at 2 h (+0.39 ± 0.20 pg·mL−1 v −0.28 ± 0.12 pg·mL−1; p = 0.001). Perceived hunger, fullness and satisfaction post-meal were comparable between diets (p > 0.05). However, desire to eat remained significantly blunted for PROMOD (p = 0.048). PROHIGH does not confer additional satiating benefits in resistance-trained individuals during short-term energy deficit. Ghrelin and PYY responses to a test-meal support the contention that satiety was maintained following PROMOD, although athletes experiencing negative symptoms (i.e., cravings) may benefit from protein-rich meals as opposed to over-consumption of protein. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Roberts, J.; Zinchenko, A.; Mahbubani, K.T.; Johnstone, J.; Smith, L.; Merzbach, V.; Blacutt, M.; Banderas, O.; Villasenor, L.; Vårvik, F.T.; Henselmans, M. Satiating Effect of High Protein Diets on Resistance-Trained Individuals in Energy Deficit. Nutrients 2019, 11, 56.
Roberts J, Zinchenko A, Mahbubani KT, Johnstone J, Smith L, Merzbach V, Blacutt M, Banderas O, Villasenor L, Vårvik FT, Henselmans M. Satiating Effect of High Protein Diets on Resistance-Trained Individuals in Energy Deficit. Nutrients. 2019; 11(1):56.Chicago/Turabian Style
Roberts, Justin; Zinchenko, Anastasia; Mahbubani, Krishnaa T.; Johnstone, James; Smith, Lee; Merzbach, Viviane; Blacutt, Miguel; Banderas, Oscar; Villasenor, Luis; Vårvik, Fredrik T.; Henselmans, Menno. 2019. "Satiating Effect of High Protein Diets on Resistance-Trained Individuals in Energy Deficit." Nutrients 11, no. 1: 56.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.