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Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010056

Satiating Effect of High Protein Diets on Resistance-Trained Individuals in Energy Deficit

1
School of Psychology and Sport Science, Cambridge Centre for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, East Road, Cambridge CB1 1PT, UK
2
Department of Biochemistry, Kings College, University of Cambridge, Kings Parade, Cambridge CB2 1ST, UK
3
International Scientific Research Foundation for Fitness and Nutrition, 1073 LC Amsterdam, The Netherlands
4
Department of Surgery, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 14 December 2018 / Accepted: 26 December 2018 / Published: 28 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Support for Athletic Performance)
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Abstract

Short-term energy deficit strategies are practiced by weight class and physique athletes, often involving high protein intakes to maximize satiety and maintain lean mass despite a paucity of research. This study compared the satiating effect of two protein diets on resistance-trained individuals during short-term energy deficit. Following ethical approval, 16 participants (age: 28 ± 2 years; height: 1.72 ± 0.03 m; body-mass: 88.83 ± 5.54 kg; body-fat: 21.85 ± 1.82%) were randomly assigned to 7-days moderate (PROMOD: 1.8 g·kg−1·d−1) or high protein (PROHIGH: 2.9 g·kg−1·d−1) matched calorie-deficit diets in a cross-over design. Daily satiety responses were recorded throughout interventions. Pre-post diet, plasma ghrelin and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), and satiety ratings were assessed in response to a protein-rich meal. Only perceived satisfaction was significantly greater following PROHIGH (67.29 ± 4.28 v 58.96 ± 4.51 mm, p = 0.04). Perceived cravings increased following PROMOD only (46.25 ± 4.96 to 57.60 ± 4.41 mm, p = 0.01). Absolute ghrelin concentration significantly reduced post-meal following PROMOD (972.8 ± 130.4 to 613.6 ± 114.3 pg·mL−1; p = 0.003), remaining lower than PROHIGH at 2 h (−0.40 ± 0.06 v −0.26 ± 0.06 pg·mL−1 normalized relative change; p = 0.015). Absolute PYY concentration increased to a similar extent post-meal (PROMOD: 84.9 ± 8.9 to 147.1 ± 11.9 pg·mL−1, PROHIGH: 100.6 ± 9.5 to 143.3 ± 12.0 pg·mL−1; p < 0.001), but expressed as relative change difference was significantly greater for PROMOD at 2 h (+0.39 ± 0.20 pg·mL−1 v −0.28 ± 0.12 pg·mL−1; p = 0.001). Perceived hunger, fullness and satisfaction post-meal were comparable between diets (p > 0.05). However, desire to eat remained significantly blunted for PROMOD (p = 0.048). PROHIGH does not confer additional satiating benefits in resistance-trained individuals during short-term energy deficit. Ghrelin and PYY responses to a test-meal support the contention that satiety was maintained following PROMOD, although athletes experiencing negative symptoms (i.e., cravings) may benefit from protein-rich meals as opposed to over-consumption of protein. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary protein; satiety; ghrelin; peptide YY; resistance training dietary protein; satiety; ghrelin; peptide YY; resistance training
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Roberts, J.; Zinchenko, A.; Mahbubani, K.T.; Johnstone, J.; Smith, L.; Merzbach, V.; Blacutt, M.; Banderas, O.; Villasenor, L.; Vårvik, F.T.; Henselmans, M. Satiating Effect of High Protein Diets on Resistance-Trained Individuals in Energy Deficit. Nutrients 2019, 11, 56.

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