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Open AccessArticle

Dietary Zinc and Risk of Prostate Cancer in Spain: MCC-Spain Study

1
Public Health & Preventive Medicine Teaching Unit, National School of Public Health, Carlos III Institute of Health, 28029 Madrid, Spain
2
Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública—CIBERESP), 28029 Madrid, Spain
3
Department of Epidemiology of Chronic Diseases, National Centre for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, 28029 Madrid, Spain
4
Faculty of Medicine, University of Alcalá, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Spain
5
ISGlobal, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
6
IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute), 08003 Barcelona, Spain
7
Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), 08002 Barcelona, Spain
8
Universidad de Cantabria—IDIVAL, 39011 Santander, Spain
9
Área de Cáncer y Salud Pública, FISABIO-Salud Pública, 46020 Valencia, Spain
10
Universidad de Granada—ibs.Granada, 18012 Granada, Spain
11
Cancer Epidemiology Section, Public Health Division, Department of Health of Madrid, 28035 Madrid, Spain
12
Oncology Institute IUOPA (Instituto Universitario de Oncología del Principado de Asturias), Universidad de Oviedo, 33003 Asturias, Spain
13
Centro de Investigación en Recursos Naturales, Salud y Medio Ambiente (RENSMA), Universidad de Huelva, 21004 Huelva, Spain
14
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid and Idipaz, 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Public Health Division of Gipuzkoa, BioDonostia Research Health Institute, 20014 San Sebastian, Spain
16
Balearic Islands Health Research Institute (IdISBa), University Hospital Son Espases, 07120 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
17
CIBER Fisiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBER-OBN), Carlos III Institute of Health, 28029 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010018
Received: 14 November 2018 / Revised: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 18 December 2018 / Published: 20 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Dietary Zinc)
Zinc is a key trace element in normal prostate cell metabolism, and is decreased in neoplastic cells. However, the association between dietary zinc and prostate cancer (PC) in epidemiologic studies is a conflicting one. Our aim was to explore this association in an MCC-Spain case-control study, considering tumor aggressiveness and extension, as well as genetic susceptibility to PC. 733 incident cases and 1228 population-based controls were included for this study. Dietary zinc was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, and genetic susceptibility was assessed with a single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)-based polygenic risk score (PRS). The association between zinc intake and PC was evaluated with mixed logistic and multinomial regression models. They showed an increased risk of PC in those with higher intake of zinc (Odds Ratio (OR) tertile 3vs1: 1.39; 95% Confidence interval (CI):1.00–1.95). This association was mainly observed in low grade PC (Gleason = 6 RRR tertile 3vs1: 1.76; 95% CI:1.18–2.63) as well as in localized tumors (cT1-cT2a RRR tertile 3vs1: 1.40; 95% CI:1.00–1.95) and among those with higher PRS (OR tertile 3vs1: 1.50; 95% CI:0.89–2.53). In conclusion, a higher dietary zinc intake could increase the risk of low grade and localized tumors. Men with higher genetic susceptibility might also have a higher risk of PC associated with this nutrient intake. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary zinc; prostate cancer; diet; genetic susceptibility dietary zinc; prostate cancer; diet; genetic susceptibility
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Gutiérrez-González, E.; Castelló, A.; Fernández-Navarro, P.; Castaño-Vinyals, G.; Llorca, J.; Salas-Trejo, D.; Salcedo-Bellido, I.; Aragonés, N.; Fernández-Tardón, G.; Alguacil, J.; Gracia-Lavedan, E.; García-Esquinas, E.; Gómez-Acebo, I.; Amiano, P.; Romaguera, D.; Kogevinas, M.; Pollán, M.; Pérez-Gómez, B. Dietary Zinc and Risk of Prostate Cancer in Spain: MCC-Spain Study. Nutrients 2019, 11, 18.

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