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Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010141

Association of Vitamin D Status with Chronic Disease Risk Factors and Cognitive Dysfunction in 50–70 Year Old Adults

1
Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, USA
2
Helen and Arthur E. Johnson Beth-El College of Nursing and Health Sciences, University of Colorado, Colorado Springs, CO 80918, USA
3
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 November 2018 / Revised: 5 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
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PDF [263 KB, uploaded 11 January 2019]

Abstract

Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency has been primarily associated with skeletal disorders, however, since vitamin D receptors are found on multiple types of cells, there is also a link to increased chronic disease risk and all-cause mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether deficient/insufficient vitamin D levels are associated with risk factors of chronic diseases and cognitive dysfunction in 50 to 70 year old adults. Participants completed the health status, three-day dietary record and vitamin D food frequency, sun exposure, and international physical activity questionnaires. Cognitive function of the participants was assessed using the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics while body composition (percent body fat, android/gynoid ratio) was assessed using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry. Applanation tonometry was used to obtain pressure wave forms at the radial artery to examine arterial stiffness and central pressures. A fasting blood draw was taken to measure vitamin D, blood lipid and glucose levels. Fifty percent of the participants (36/72) were vitamin D deficient/insufficient. Individuals in the low physical activity (PA) group had lower serum vitamin D concentration compared to those in the high PA group (p = 0.04). Moreover, serum vitamin D levels were negatively related to risk factors of chronic diseases; blood glucose (r = −0.38; p = 0.01), triglycerides (r = −0.27; p = 0.02), and android/gynoid ratio (r = −0.32; p = 0.01). Deficient/insufficient vitamin D levels are linked to the risk factors of chronic diseases in men and women aged 50 to 70 years. View Full-Text
Keywords: physical activity; elderly; 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D; 25 hydroxy vitamin D physical activity; elderly; 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D; 25 hydroxy vitamin D
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kaur, J.; Ferguson, S.L.; Freitas, E.; Miller, R.; Bemben, D.; Knehans, A.; Bemben, M. Association of Vitamin D Status with Chronic Disease Risk Factors and Cognitive Dysfunction in 50–70 Year Old Adults. Nutrients 2019, 11, 141.

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