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Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1140; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091140

Acute and Chronic Effects of Exercise on Appetite, Energy Intake, and Appetite-Related Hormones: The Modulating Effect of Adiposity, Sex, and Habitual Physical Activity

1
National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine, School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU, UK
2
Academy of Sport and Physical Activity, Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S10 2BP, UK
3
Physical Education and Sports Science Academic Group, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637616, Singapore
4
School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham NG11 8NF, UK
5
Institute for Sport, Physical Activity and Leisure, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds LS6 3QS, UK
6
Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Saitama 169-8050, Japan
7
Centre for Obesity Research, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
8
University College London Hospitals Bariatric Centre for Weight Management and Metabolic Surgery, Ground Floor West Wing, 250 Euston Road, London NW1 2PG, UK
9
National Institute of Health Research University College London Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre, London W1T 7DN, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 20 August 2018 / Published: 22 August 2018
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Abstract

Exercise facilitates weight control, partly through effects on appetite regulation. Single bouts of exercise induce a short-term energy deficit without stimulating compensatory effects on appetite, whilst limited evidence suggests that exercise training may modify subjective and homeostatic mediators of appetite in directions associated with enhanced meal-induced satiety. However, a large variability in responses exists between individuals. This article reviews the evidence relating to how adiposity, sex, and habitual physical activity modulate exercise-induced appetite, energy intake, and appetite-related hormone responses. The balance of evidence suggests that adiposity and sex do not modify appetite or energy intake responses to acute or chronic exercise interventions, but individuals with higher habitual physical activity levels may better adjust energy intake in response to energy balance perturbations. The effect of these individual characteristics and behaviours on appetite-related hormone responses to exercise remains equivocal. These findings support the continued promotion of exercise as a strategy for inducing short-term energy deficits irrespective of adiposity and sex, as well as the ability of exercise to positively influence energy balance over the longer term. Future well-controlled studies are required to further ascertain the potential mediators of appetite responses to exercise. View Full-Text
Keywords: appetite; energy intake; appetite-related hormones; energy balance; exercise; physical activity; energy compensation; weight control appetite; energy intake; appetite-related hormones; energy balance; exercise; physical activity; energy compensation; weight control
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Dorling, J.; Broom, D.R.; Burns, S.F.; Clayton, D.J.; Deighton, K.; James, L.J.; King, J.A.; Miyashita, M.; Thackray, A.E.; Batterham, R.L.; Stensel, D.J. Acute and Chronic Effects of Exercise on Appetite, Energy Intake, and Appetite-Related Hormones: The Modulating Effect of Adiposity, Sex, and Habitual Physical Activity. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1140.

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