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Levodopa-Reduced Mucuna pruriens Seed Extract Shows Neuroprotective Effects against Parkinson’s Disease in Murine Microglia and Human Neuroblastoma Cells, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila melanogaster

1
School of Biotechnology and Health Sciences, Wuyi University; International Healthcare Innovation Institute (Jiangmen), Jiangmen 529020, China
2
Bioactive Botanical Research Laboratory, Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA
3
George and Anne Ryan Institute for Neuroscience, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA
4
Edison Biotechnology Institute, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA
5
School of Applied Health Sciences and Wellness, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1139; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091139
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 22 August 2018
Mucuna pruriens (Mucuna) has been prescribed in Ayurveda for various brain ailments including ‘kampavata’ (tremors) or Parkinson’s disease (PD). While Mucuna is a well-known natural source of levodopa (L-dopa), published studies suggest that other bioactive compounds may also be responsible for its anti-PD effects. To investigate this hypothesis, an L-dopa reduced (<0.1%) M. pruriens seeds extract (MPE) was prepared and evaluated for its anti-PD effects in cellular (murine BV-2 microglia and human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells), Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila melanogaster models. In BV-2 cells, MPE (12.5–50 μg/mL) reduced hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity (15.7−18.6%), decreased reactive oxygen species production (29.1−61.6%), and lowered lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide species release by 8.9–60%. MPE (12.5−50 μg/mL) mitigated SH-SY5Y cell apoptosis by 6.9−40.0% in a non-contact co-culture assay with cell-free supernatants from LPS-treated BV-2 cells. MPE (12.5−50 μg/mL) reduced 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cell death of SH-SY5Y cells by 11.85–38.5%. Furthermore, MPE (12.5−50 μg/mL) increased median (25%) and maximum survival (47.8%) of C. elegans exposed to the dopaminergic neurotoxin, methyl-4-phenylpyridinium. MPE (40 μg/mL) ameliorated dopaminergic neurotoxin (6-OHDA and rotenone) induced precipitation of innate negative geotaxis behavior of D. melanogaster by 35.3 and 32.8%, respectively. Therefore, MPE contains bioactive compounds, beyond L-dopa, which may impart neuroprotective effects against PD. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mucuna pruriens; levodopa; Parkinson’s disease; neuroprotection; Caenorhabditis elegans; Drosophila melanogaster Mucuna pruriens; levodopa; Parkinson’s disease; neuroprotection; Caenorhabditis elegans; Drosophila melanogaster
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Johnson, S.L.; Park, H.Y.; DaSilva, N.A.; Vattem, D.A.; Ma, H.; Seeram, N.P. Levodopa-Reduced Mucuna pruriens Seed Extract Shows Neuroprotective Effects against Parkinson’s Disease in Murine Microglia and Human Neuroblastoma Cells, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila melanogaster. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1139.

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