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Vitamin A Deficiency and the Lung

1
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Avgda V. Andrés Estellés s/n, 46100 Burjassot, Spain
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Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine-IIS INCLIVA, University of Valencia, Avda. Blasco Ibañez, 15, 46010 Valencia, Spain
3
Department of Human Anatomy and Embriology, Faculty of Medicine-IIS INCLIVA, University of Valencia, Avda. Blasco Ibañez, 15, 46010 Valencia, Spain
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Microscopy Unit IIS La Fe Valencia, Avda Campanar, 21, 46009 Valencia, Spain
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Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Avda. Blasco Ibañez, 15, 46010 Valencia, Spain
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Centro Salud Valencia-Ingeniero J. Benlloch, C/Joaquin Benlloch, 27, 46006 Valencia, Spain
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Hospital Universitario Doctor Pesset, Gaspar Aguilar, 90, 46017 Valencia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1132; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091132
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Relationship between Nutrition and Respiratory Disease)
Vitamin A (all-trans-retinol) is a fat-soluble micronutrient which together with its natural derivatives and synthetic analogues constitutes the group of retinoids. They are involved in a wide range of physiological processes such as embryonic development, vision, immunity and cellular differentiation and proliferation. Retinoic acid (RA) is the main active form of vitamin A and multiple genes respond to RA signalling through transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a remarkable public health problem. An adequate vitamin A intake is required in early lung development, alveolar formation, tissue maintenance and regeneration. In fact, chronic VAD has been associated with histopathological changes in the pulmonary epithelial lining that disrupt the normal lung physiology predisposing to severe tissue dysfunction and respiratory diseases. In addition, there are important alterations of the structure and composition of extracellular matrix with thickening of the alveolar basement membrane and ectopic deposition of collagen I. In this review, we show our recent findings on the modification of cell-junction proteins in VAD lungs, summarize up-to-date information related to the effects of chronic VAD in the impairment of lung physiology and pulmonary disease which represent a major global health problem and provide an overview of possible pathways involved. View Full-Text
Keywords: Vitamin A deficiency; retinol; retinoic acid; lung; pulmonary disease; extracellular matrix; E-cadherin; N-cadherin; collagen; epithelial–mesenchymal transition Vitamin A deficiency; retinol; retinoic acid; lung; pulmonary disease; extracellular matrix; E-cadherin; N-cadherin; collagen; epithelial–mesenchymal transition
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Timoneda, J.; Rodríguez-Fernández, L.; Zaragozá, R.; Marín, M.P.; Cabezuelo, M.T.; Torres, L.; Viña, J.R.; Barber, T. Vitamin A Deficiency and the Lung. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1132.

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