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Impact of a Mediterranean Dietary Pattern and Its Components on Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Glucose Control, and Body Weight in People with Type 2 Diabetes: A Real-Life Study

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Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University of Naples, 80131 Naples, Italy
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Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, 37134 Verona, Italy
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University Department Laboratory Medicine, Hospital of Desio, 20832 Monza, Italy
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Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Perugia, 06126, Perugia, Italy
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Diabetes Unit, University Hospital Garibaldi-Nesima of Catania, 95122 Catania, Italy
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Department of Experimental Medicine, Sapienza University, 04100 Rome, Italy
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Department of Medicine, University of Padua, 35100 Padova, Italy
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Medical Division, Rimini Hospital, 47900 Rimini, Italy
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Diabetes Unit, Azienda Sanitaria Toscana Nord-Ovest, Massa Carrara, 54100 Massa Carrara, Italy
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Section of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolic Diseases, University of Palermo, 90127 Palermo, Italy
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Institute for Research on Population and Social Policies—National Research Council, 84084 Fisciano, Italy
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Unità di Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, 20133 Milano, Italy
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Department of Public Health, Federico II University of Naples, 80131 Naples, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The complete list of Investigators and participating centers is available in the online Supplementary Materials.
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1067; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081067
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Mediterranean Diet)
This study evaluates the relation of a Mediterranean dietary pattern and its individual components with the cardiovascular risk factors profile, plasma glucose and body mass index (BMI) in people with type 2 diabetes. We studied 2568 participants at 57 diabetes clinics. Diet was assessed with the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) questionnaire, adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated with the relative Mediterranean diet score (rMED). A high compared to a low score was associated with a better quality of diet and a greater adherence to the nutritional recommendations for diabetes. However, even in the group achieving a high score, only a small proportion of participants met the recommendations for fiber and saturated fat (respectively 17% and 30%). Nonetheless, a high score was associated with lower values of plasma lipids, blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin, and BMI. The relationship of the single food items components of the rMED score with the achievement of treatment targets for plasma lipids, blood pressure, glucose, and BMI were also explored. The study findings support the Mediterranean dietary model as a suitable model for type 2 diabetes and the concept that the beneficial health effects of the Mediterranean diet lie primarily in its synergy among various nutrients and foods rather than on any individual component. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mediterranean diet; diabetes; cardiovascular risk; glucose control; plasma lipids; relative Mediterranean diet score Mediterranean diet; diabetes; cardiovascular risk; glucose control; plasma lipids; relative Mediterranean diet score
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Vitale, M.; Masulli, M.; Calabrese, I.; Rivellese, A.A.; Bonora, E.; Signorini, S.; Perriello, G.; Squatrito, S.; Buzzetti, R.; Sartore, G.; Babini, A.C.; Gregori, G.; Giordano, C.; Clemente, G.; Grioni, S.; Dolce, P.; Riccardi, G.; Vaccaro, O.; On behalf of the TOSCA.IT Study Group. Impact of a Mediterranean Dietary Pattern and Its Components on Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Glucose Control, and Body Weight in People with Type 2 Diabetes: A Real-Life Study. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1067.

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